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Digestive System I: Organs and Structure

General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth
Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach Linings and Mesentaries

Small Intestine
Large Intestine

The Digestive System and Body Metabolism


Digestion Six essential activities
1. Ingestion
Ingestion Mechanical digestion Chewing (mouth) Churning (stomach) Segmentation (small intestine) Chemical digestion Food Pharynx Esophagus Propulsion Swallowing (oropharynx) Peristalsis Stomach (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine) Absorption Lymph vessel Small intestine Large intestine

2. Propulsion
3. Mechanical digestion 4. Chemical digestion 5. Absorption

6. Defecation

Blood vessel Mainly H2O Feces Anus

Defecation

Organs of the Digestive System


Organs of the Alimentary Canal Mouth Pharynx

Esophagus
Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus

Accessory Digestive Organs Salivary glands

Teeth
Pancreas Liver Gall bladder

Digestive System I: Organs and Structure


General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach

Linings and Mesentaries


Small Intestine Large Intestine

Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy

Processes of the Mouth


Mechanical Processes
Mastication (chewing) of food using temporal and masseter muscles and teeth Wetting masticated food with saliva Initiation of swallowing by the tongue Chemical Processes Allowing for the sense of taste Digestion of some starch by salivary amylase in saliva

Teeth
The role is to masticate (chew) food Humans have two sets of teeth Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth 20 teeth are fully formed by age two Permanent teeth Replace deciduous teeth beginning between the ages of 6 to 12

A full set is 32 teeth, but some people do not have wisdom teeth
Classification of Teeth Incisors (clipping, nibbling) Canines (siezing) Premolars (grinding) Molars (grinding)

Regions of a Tooth
Crown exposed part Outer enamel Dentin Pulp cavity Neck Region in contact with the gum

Connects crown to root


Root Periodontal membrane attached to the bone Root canal carrying blood vessels and nerves

Pharynx Anatomy and Function

Digestive System I: Organs and Structure


General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach

Linings and Mesentaries


Small Intestine Large Intestine

Deglutition
Bolus of food Tongue

Pharynx
Epiglottis Glottis Trachea

1 Upper esophageal sphincter is contracted. During the buccal phase, the tongue presses against the hard palate, forcing the food bolus into the oropharynx where the involuntary phase begins.
Figure 23.13, step 1

Deglutition

Uvula Bolus Epiglottis

Esophagus
2 The uvula and larynx rise to prevent food from entering respiratory passageways. The tongue blocks off the mouth. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing food to enter the esophagus.
Figure 23.13, step 2

Deglutition

Bolus

3 The constrictor muscles of the pharynx contract, forcing food into the esophagus inferiorly. The upper esophageal sphincter contracts (closes) after entry.
Figure 23.13, step 3

Digestive System I: Organs and Structure


General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach

Linings and Mesentaries


Small Intestine Large Intestine

Esophagus
Runs from pharynx to stomach through the diaphragm
Conducts food by peristalsis (slow rhythmic squeezing)

Passageway for food only (respiratory system branches off after the pharynx)
Esophageal mucosa contains stratified squamous epithelium Changes to simple columnar at the stomach

Esophageal glands in submucosa secrete mucus to aid in bolus movement

Propulsion
Peristalsis alternating waves of contraction

Segmentation moving materials back and forth to aid in mixing

Peristalsis Movie Online

Peristalsis X-ray movie

Digestive System I: Organs and Structure


General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach

Linings and Mesentaries


Small Intestine Large Intestine

Stomach Anatomy and Function


cardiac region

serosa cardiac sphincter


fundus region

body region

Muscularis externa

pylorus region

rugae of mucosa

Functions of the Stomach

Acts as a storage tank for food


Site of initial food breakdown Chemical breakdown of protein begins Delivers chyme (processed food) to the small intestine

Propulsion in the Stomach


Food must first be well mixed
Rippling peristalsis occurs in the lower stomach The pylorus meters out chyme into the small intestine (30 ml at a time) The stomach empties in four to six hours

Stomach peristalsis interactive animation online

Figure 14.15

Specialized Mucosa of the Stomach


Simple columnar epithelium Mucous neck cells produce a sticky alkaline mucus Gastric glands secrete gastric juice Chief cells produce protein-digesting enzymes (pepsinogens) Parietal cells produce hydrochloric acid Endocrine cells produce gastrin

Chief Cells Utilize Blood CO2 and Interstitial Cl to Produce HCl


Blood capillary Chief cell Stomach lumen

CO2

CO2 + H2O Carbonic H2CO3 anhydrase H+ K+ HCO3

H+-K+ ATPase

H+
K+

Alkaline tide HCO3 Cl

Parietal cell

HCI

Cl HCO3- Cl antiporter

Cl l

Interstitial fluid
Figure 23.18

Serous Membranes- Thin linings of organs and body wall


Mesenteries are double layers of peritoneum Routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves; holds organs in place and stores fat
Parietal serosae line internal body walls Visceral serosae cover internal organs

Retroperitoneal organs lie posterior to the peritoneum (e.g. the liver); intraperitoneal (peritoneal) organs are surrounded by the peritoneum

Mesenteries of the Stomach


Layers of peritoneum (serosa) attached to the stomach = mesentaries

Lesser omentum attaches the liver to the lesser curvature Greater omentum attaches the greater curvature to the posterior body wall

Lesser omentum

Contains fat to insulate, cushion, and protect abdominal organs

Greater omentum

Digestive System I: Organs and Structure


General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach

Linings and Mesentaries


Small Intestine Large Intestine

Small Intestine
The bodys major digestive organ Site of nutrient absorption into the blood Muscular tube extending form the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve Suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by the mesentery (omenta) Regions of the Small Intestine Duodenum
o
o

Attached to the stomach


Curves around the head of the pancreas

Jejunum
o Attaches anteriorly to the duodenum

Ileum
o Extends from jejunum to large intestine

Four Tunics of the Alimentary Canal

1.

2. 3.

4.

Absorption in the Small Intestine

Absorptive Structures
Absorptive cells Blood capillaries Lacteals (specialized lymphatic capillaries) Intestinal crypt epithelium
Secretory cells that produce intestinal juice Cells that make antimicrobial chemicals Stem cells

Folds in the Small Intestine


Called circular folds or plicae circulares Deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa Do not disappear when filled with food

Peyers patches in submucosa (collections of lymphatic tissue)

Digestive System I: Organs and Structure


General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach

Linings and Mesentaries


Small Intestine Large Intestine

Functions of the Large Intestine


Structures Cecum saclike first part of the large intestine Appendix
Accumulation of lymphatic tissue that sometimes becomes inflamed (appendicitis)

Hangs from the cecum

Colon
Ascending Transverse Descending S-shaped sigmoidal

Rectum Anus external body opening Functions Absorption of water Elimination of indigestible food from the body as feces Does not participate in digestion of food Goblet cells produce mucus to act as a lubricant

Right colic (hepatic) flexure Transverse colon Superior mesenteric artery Haustrum Ascending colon IIeum

Left colic (splenic) flexure Transverse mesocolon Epiploic appendages


Descending colon Cut edge of mesentery Teniae coli Sigmoid colon Rectum Anal canal External anal sphincter
Figure 23.29a

IIeocecal valve Cecum


Vermiform appendix (a)

Modifications to the Muscularis Externa in the Large Intestine


Longitudinal smooth muscle is reduced to three bands (teniae coli); circular muscles still present Muscle bands have some degree of tone Walls are formed into pocketlike sacs called haustra

Digestive System I: Organs and Structure


General functions
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth and Teeth Swallowing Pharynx, Esophagus
o Propulsion

Stomach

Linings and Mesentaries


Small Intestine Large Intestine