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# Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension

## Objectives for Section 2.1

1. Describe motion in terms of displacement, time, and velocity.

2. Calculate the displacement of an object traveling at a known velocity for a specific time interval.
3. Solve problems involving displacement, time, and velocity 4. Construct and interpret graphs of position versus time.

## Objectives for Section 2.1

5. Use an appropriate problem solving technique when solving numerical problems including the use of variables, a statement of knowns and unknowns, the use of a labeled diagram including an explicit display of a coordinate system, listing of appropriate equations, use of algebra to isolate an unknown in terms of variables, conversion of quantities using the factor-label method, display of numerical quantities with their accompanying units and correct use of significant figures.

## Motion - Reference Frame

Train moving on linear track 1D motion But
Earth spinning on axis Earth revolving around sun Sun moving through galaxy Etc

Simplify choose frame of reference to measure changes in position For train, use train station

## Motion - Reference Frame

Train moving on linear track 1D motion But
Earth spinning on axis Earth revolving around sun Sun moving through galaxy Etc

Simplify choose frame of reference to measure changes in position For train, use train station

## Motion - Reference Frame

Object is at rest if its position does not change with respect to its reference frame Free to choose any frame of reference
Must be consistently used once chosen

## Some choices make life easier

Station as x = 0 point

Displacement
Displacement = change in position

x = x f - xi

## Value can be positive or negative depending upon relative values of xf and xi

Vector quantity has magnitude and direction (+ / -, north / south)

## Positive & Negative Displacements

Velocity
Average velocity: displacement divided by time interval vavg = x / t SI units m/s vavg can be + or depending upon sign of x

Velocity
Sample problem 2A, page 44

Practice
Average velocity and displacement Practice 2A, page 44 Problems 1-6 Chapter Review, pages 69-70 Problems 1, 6, 8-15

Velocity vs Speed
Average velocity vavg = x / t Vector - has direction associated with it - net direction of x

## Velocity Graphical Interpretation

Average velocity

vavg = x / t
Same as slope of given segment of displacement vs time graph Instantaneous velocity

## Velocity Graphical Interpretation

3 different cases of constant velocity

## Velocity Graphical Interpretation

Instantaneous Velocity

Practice
Section Review, page 47 Problem 3

## Greater vavg? Greater v @ 8 min? v bear A always +? v bear B ever -?

Practice
Conceptual Challenge, page 45 Problems 1-2 Section Review, page 47 Problems 1-6
Problem 6 good challenge, especially part b!

## Problem Solving Steps - Kinematics

1. Read problem carefully 2. Write down given quantities with their appropriate symbols (including subscripts and units)
x = 3.5 m viy = 4.2 m/s t = 1.7 s vfx = - 7.43 m/s

## Problem Solving Steps - Kinematics

3. Write down any other quantities which may not be directly given, but which you can figure out without the use of equations
a) a = g = - 9.8 m/s2 (free fall) b) vyf = 0 (for highest part of trajectory) c) y = 0 (for projectile launch/land at same elevation)

## Problem Solving Steps - Kinematics

4. Draw diagram describing the problem
a) Establish and label coordinate system, including an origin for each direction (optional for some) b) Label displacements, velocities with their symbols (v0, vyf, x) applies to both known and unknown values

## Problem Solving Steps - Kinematics

4. Draw a diagram describing the problem (cont.)
c) Draw labeled vectors at position where that vector acts

## Problem Solving Steps - Kinematics

5. Identify appropriate equation(s) and write down in symbolic form (no numbers) 6. Solve equations for unknown quantities in symbolic form 7. Substitute known quantities into equations using both numerical values and units

Problem Solving Steps - Kinematics 8. Write answer so it is identified by its symbol, has the appropriate number of significant digits, and has the proper units. Put a box around your answer. 9. Check your work. Make sure you answered question that was asked! Check to see that you answered all parts of question.

## Sample Problem 2 objects

2 cars drive in same direction down straight road at constant speed one at 15 m/s & the other at 35 m/s. Both cross a starting line at same time. a) How much sooner does faster car cross a finish line 1.5 km away? b) How far away is (different) finish line if faster car arrives 1.50 minutes before slower one?

v2i v1i x

## Sample Problem 2 objects

a) How much sooner does faster car cross a finish line 1.5 km away?

v2i v1i
x

## v1i = 15 m/s v2i = 35 m/s x = 1.5 km = 1.5x103 m tdiff = t1 t2 = ??

vavg = v = x/t t = x/v t1 =x/v1i t2 =x/v2i tdiff = x (1/v1i 1/v2i) tdiff = 1.5x103 m (1/15 m/s 1/35 m/s) tdiff = 1.5x103 m (6.7x10-2 s/m 2.9x10-2 s/m) tdiff = 1.5x103 m 3.8x10-2 s/m = 57 s

## Sample Problem 2 objects

b. How far away is (different) finish line if faster car arrives 1.50 minutes before slower one?

v2i v1i
x

## v1i = 15 m/s v2i = 35 m/s tdiff = 1.50 min = 90.0 s x = ??

tdiff = x (1/v1i 1/v2i) derived in part a x = tdiff / (1/v1i 1/v2i) = 90.0 s / 3.8x10-2 s/m x = 2400 m = 2.4 km

## Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension

2.1 Displacement and Velocity 2.2 Acceleration 2.3 Falling Objects

## Objectives for Section 2.2

1. Describe motion in terms of changing velocity.

## 2. Interpret and/or generate graphical representations of accelerated and nonaccelerated motions.

3. Properly relate the signs of displacement, velocity and acceleration to the type of motion that is occurring.

## Objectives for Section 2.2

4. Apply kinematic equations to solve onedimensional motion problems involving distance, displacement, time, and/or acceleration using proper problemsolving techniques (see objective 5 for section 2.1), including one-dimensional motion along a ramp.

Acceleration
Acceleration measures the rate of change of the velocity
Stepping on the gas Hitting the brakes aavg = v / t = (vf - vi) / (tf - ti)

## Average acceleration = change in velocity / time interval Units = (m/s) / s = m/s2

Acceleration
Avg Acceleration prob. 2B, page 49

Practice
Average Acceleration Practice 2B, page 49 Problems 1-5 Chapter Review page 71 Problems 20, 30

Acceleration
Can deduce values from velocity time graph see figure 2-10

## + acc? - acc? 0 acc?

Acceleration
Acceleration has magnitude and direction Have to worry about sign of velocity, which in turn depends upon sign of displacement For a train leaving a station in the negative direction, acceleration is negative as the train is speeding up

Acceleration
Table 2-3 (page 51) Interpreting aspects of motion from signs of vi and a vi a Motion + + Speeding up Speeding up + Slowing down + Slowing down - or + 0 Constant velocity 0 - or + Speeding up from rest 0 0 At rest

## Motion with Constant Acceleration

Motion of falling ball (constant time intervals) Constant acceleration due to gravity Simple formulas exist for constant acceleration which allow relatively easy calculations of parameters of motion

## Motion with Constant Acceleration

Average velocity [1] vavg = x / t Consider constant acceleration case See next slide or fig 2-12, page 52 for velocity vs time profile [2] vavg = (vf + vi) / 2 Combining equations 1 and 2 yields x = (vf + vi) t Displacement = f(vi, vf, t)

## vavg = (vf + vi) / 2

Acceleration
Displacement with uniform acceleration Problem 2C, page 53

Practice
Displacement with uniform acceleration Practice 2C, page 53 Problems 1-5 Chapter Review pages 71-72 Problems 23, 25, 27,

## Motion with Constant Acceleration

If a constant, a = aavg a = aavg = (vf - vi) / (tf ti) = (vf - vi) / t a t = (vf - vi) [1] vf = vi + a t vf = f(vi, a, t) Combine [1] with previous expression x = (vf + vi) t x = vi t + a(t)2 Displacement = x = f(v , a, t)

## V and x with uniform acceleration Problem 2D, page 55

Acceleration

Practice
V and x with uniform acceleration Practice 2D, page 55 Problems 1-4 Chapter Review pages 71-72 Problems 21, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 31

## Motion with Constant Acceleration

By doing some algebra (see page 56 of text), can derive an expression which does not depend on t vf2 = vi2 + 2ax Caution: because solution for either vi or vf comes from square root operation, the sign of the velocity is not known from the formula must determine by reasoning

Acceleration
Vf after any displacement Problem 2E, page 57

Practice
Final Velocity After Any Displacement Practice 2E, page 58 Problems 1-6 Chapter Review, page 72 Problems 32-33

## Summary of Basic Equations (1)

Three basic definition equations, one each for: Displacement Average Velocity Average Acceleration (See next slide)

## Basic (Defining) Equations

Displacement: change in position = final position initial position x = xf xi Average velocity: displacement / time interval vavg = x / t = (xf - xi) / (tf - ti)

Average acceleration: change in velocity / time interval aavg = v / t = (vf - vi) / (tf - ti)

## Summary of Basic Equations (2)

Four equations for uniformly accelerated motion expressed in terms of five variables
x displacement t time interval vi initial velocity vf final velocity a acceleration

Dont need vf

Dont need t

## Practice Problems 5,6 page 59

Velocity (m/s)

Time (s)

Time Is bus intervals always moving during which in same v isdirection? a constant? zero?

vavg = (vi + vf)

## aavg = (vf vi)/t

x = (vi + vf)t = vavg t

x = v i t + a t 2
vf = vi + a t

vf2 = vi2 + 2 a x

Sample Problem
Police car starts from rest and accelerates at constant rate of 3.0 m/s2 for 5.0 seconds, then continues moving with constant speed

How fast is it moving at end of 5.0 seconds? How far has it gone in first 5.0 seconds? Average speed for first 5.0 seconds? How far does it go between 5.0 and 10.0 seconds? Average velocity over 10.0 seconds?

## Diagram, Givens, Unknowns

Police car starts from rest and accelerates at constant rate of 3.0 m/s2 for 5.0 seconds, then continues moving with constant speed v x2 x1 vi1 = 0 m/s t1 = 5.0 s t2 = 5.0 s a1 = 3.0 m/s2 (for t 5 s) a2 = 0 (for t > 5 s) vf1 = ? x1 = ? vavg1 = ? x2 = ? vavg = ?

v
x1

Part 1 vf1
x2

vi1 = 0 m/s t1 = 5.0 s a1 = 3.0 m/s2 (for t 5 s) vf1 = vi1 + a1 t1 vf1 = 0 + 3.0 m/s2 5.0 s vf1 = 15 m/s

v
x1

Part 2 - x1
x2

vi1 = 0 m/s t1 = 5.0 s a1 = 3.0 m/s2 (for t 5 s) x1 = vi1 t + a1 t12 x1 = 0 + 3.0 m/s2 (5.0 s)2 x1 = 1.5 m/s2 25 s2 x1 = 38 m

v
x1

Part 3 - vavg1
x2

vi1 = 0 m/s t1 = 5.0 s a1 = 3.0 m/s2 (for t 5 s) x1 = vavg1 t1 vavg1 = x1 / t1 [have x1 from part 2] vavg1 = 38 m / 5.0 s vavg1 = 7.6 m/s

v
x1

Part 4 x2
x2

vf1 = vi2 = 15 m/s [from solution to part 1] t2 = 5.0 s a2 = 0 m/s2 x2 = vi2 t2 + a2 t22 x2 = vi2 t2 x2 = 15 m/s 5.0 s x2 = 75 m

Part 5 vavg

x2 x1 x1 = 38 m [ from solution to part 2] x2 = 75 m [ from solution to part 4] t1 = 5.0 s t2 = 5.0 s xtot = vavg ttot vavg = xtot / ttot xtot = x1 + x2 = 38 m + 75 m = 113 m ttot = t1 + t2 = 5.0 s + 5.0 s = 10.0 s vavg = xtot / ttot = 113 m/10.0 s = 11.3 m/s

## Rolling Ball Down CPO Straight Ramp

v0 = 0 (ball released from rest), = 57.0 x1 = 20.0 cm, x2 = 60.0 cm v1 = ?, v2 = ?, t12 = ?
g

???

## cos() =gx/g gx = g cos() = ax = 5.34 m/s2

Convert calculated velocities into photogate times using steel ball diameter = 18.9 mm

x1 = 20.0 cm, x2 = 60.0 cm v1 = ?, v2 = ?, t12 = ? v12 = v02 + 2 ax x1 v22 = v02 + 2 ax x2 Gate time = d / v v2 = v1 + ax t12 gate1 = 12.9 ms gate2 = 7.47 ms t12 = 0.200 s 2 2 2 2 0.200 2.14 gate = 9.0 ms v2 = 2 5.34 m/s 0.600 m = 6.41 m gate = 15.6 ms t = 0.247 s 1 2 1 = (v2 v1) / ax 12 /s t12 Measured times different than calculated times 2/(2 2/(0.400 1.46 v = 2.53 m/s 2 a (exptl) = v x ) = (1.21 m/s) m) 1 2 x 1 m/s 1gate t12 = (2.53 1.461m/s) / 5.34 Calculate m/s = 0.200 s Assume measured is correct. Why? -2 2/ 2.53 1.46 m/s 12.9 gate = 1.89x10 m =27.47 a (exptl) = 3.66 m/s 1 new ax & use it to calculate gate and ms t12. 2 x
Convert calculated velocities into photogate times using steel ball diameter = 18.9 mm

Practice
Section Review, page 59 Problems 1-4

## Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension

2.1 Displacement and Velocity 2.2 Acceleration 2.3 Falling Objects

## Objectives for Section 2.3

1. Relate the motion of a freely falling body to motion with constant acceleration.

2. Solve problems involving displacement, velocity, and time for a freely falling object or objects using proper problemsolving techniques (see objective 5 for section 2.1). 3. Compare the motion of different objects in free fall.

Free Fall
Velocity (m/s)

Time (s)

Constant (- acc) even when ball moving up Shown by constant slope Velocity is zero at peak height

## Feather and Apple in Free Fall (Vacuum)

In absence of air resistance, all objects regardless of size or mass fall with same acceleration (that of gravity)

Free Fall
Acceleration due to gravity denoted with symbol g Value at earths surface = 9.81 m/s2 Books convention: up is positive direction Thus, a = g = -9.81 m/s2 All equations developed for previous section apply to free fall problems but replace x with y

## Free Fall - Sample Problem

Baseball thrown straight upward at 40.0 m/s 1. How high is it at 2.0 s?

2. How fast is it moving at 2.0 s? 3. When does it reach its maximum height? 4. How high does it go? 5. How long is it in air (to return to start)? 6. How fast is it going when it reaches its starting point?

## Diagram, Givens, Unknowns

Baseball thrown straight upward at 40.0 m/s vi = 40.0 m/s y (2.0 s) = ? a = 9.81 m/s2 v (2.0 s) = ? t = ? max y ymax = ? ttot = ? vf = ? ymax v
tmax ttot

## Part 1 - y (at 2.0 s)

vi vi = 40.0 m/s 2 a = 9.81 m/s y t = 2.0 s

y = vi t + a t2 y= 40.0 m/s 2.0 s 9.81 m/s2 (2.0 s)2 y = 80.0 m 2.0x101 m y = 6.0x101 m

vf
vi

## Part 2 - v (at 2.0 s)

vi = 40.0 m/s 2 a = 9.81 m/s y t = 2.0 s

vf = vi + a t vf = 40.0 m/s 9.81 m/s2 2.0 s vf = 40.0 m/s 2.0x101 m/s vf = 2.0x101 m/s

vf
vi

Part 3 - tmax
ymax vi = 40.0 m/s y a = 9.81 m/s2

tmax vf = vi + a tmax vf now refers to v at highest point = 0 m/s 0 = vi + a tmax tmax= vi / a tmax= 40.0 m/s / (9.81 m/s2) tmax= 4.08 s

vf
vi ymax

Part 4 - ymax
vi = 40.0 m/s a = 9.81 m/s2 tmax= 4.08 s [from part 3]

ymax = vi tmax + a t2max ymax = 40.0 m/s 4.08 s 9.81 m/s2 (4.08 s)2 Alternate solution ymax = 163 m 81.7 m vf2 = vi2 + 2 a ymax ymax = 81 m 2
ymax = - vi /(2a)

Part 5 - ttot
vi ytot vi = 40.0 m/s y a = 9.81 m/s2
Time to go up always = time to come down (will prove this)

ttot ytot = 0 when ball lands ytot = vi ttot + a t2tot = 0 ttot(vi + a ttot) = 0 [root when ( ) =0] ttot= 2 vi / a = 2 40.0 m/s / (9.81 m/s2) ttot= 8.15 s = 2 tmax

Part 6 - vf
vi vf ytot vi = 40.0 m/s a = 9.81 m/s2

vf2 = vi2 + 2 a ytot Comes down at same speed as ytot = 0 when ball lands was sent up! 2 2 vf = vi vf = vi2 [know must be opposite, so use ] vf = vi

## Proof of t(up) = t(down)

ttot Divide flight of vi yup ball into 2 parts: u = trip up t d = trip down tup tdown y(u) = y(d) (distance traveled same) Trip up: vf(u) = 0 Trip down: vi(d) = 0 y = (vi + vf)t t = 2y/(vi + vf) t(u) = 2y(u)/vi(u) t(down) = 2y(u)/vf(d) From previous slide (part 6): vf(d) = vi(u) t(u) = t(down)

## 2 Object Problem with 2 Versions

Dog drops ball, boy throws it straight down These problems are hit simultaneously. at 41.0 m/s. Both balls designed to v h1, h2 = ? 01 = 0.0 m/s v m/s challenge 02 = 41.0 your 2 a = 9.81 m/s mathematical skills! t1 = t2 = t The solutions Version 1 2 m illustrated are not h h = 5.90x10 2 1 necessarily the only Version 2 h r = 1.580 ones 2/h1 =possible.

## Two Object Problem Version 1

vy01 = 0.0 m/s h1, h2 = ? vy02 = 41.0 m/s a = 9.81 m/s2 h2 - h1 = h = 5.90x102 m t1 = t2 = t y1 = -h1 = vy01 t + a t2 = a t2 y2 = -h2 = vy02 t + a t2 h2 - h1 = -vy02 t - a t2 + a t2 h2 - h1 = -vy02 t = h t = -h/ vy02 = -5.90x102 m/ - 41.0 m/s t = 14.4 s

## Two Object Problem Version 1

vy01 = 0.0 m/s h1, h2 = ? vy02 = 41.0 m/s a = 9.81 m/s2 h2 - h1 = h = 5.90x102 m t1 = t2 = t t = 14.4 s h1= - a t2 = 0.59.81 m/s2 (14.4 s)2 h1= 1020 m h2 = h1 + 5.90x102 m = 1610 m

## Two Object Problem Version 2

vy01 = 0.0 m/s h1, h2 = ? vy02 = 41.0 m/s a = 9.81 m/s2 h2/h1 = r = 1.580 t1 = t2 = t y1 = -h1 = vy01 t + a t2 t = (-2 h1 / a) y2 = -h2 = vy02 t + a t2 h2 = -vy02 (-2h1/a) + h1 r h1 = -vy02 (-2h1/a) + h1 (r 1)h1 = -vy02 (-2h1/a) Square both sides

## Two Object Problem Version 2

vy01 = 0.0 m/s h1, h2 = ? vy02 = 41.0 m/s a = 9.81 m/s2 h2/h1 = r = 1.580 t1 = t2 = t (r 1)2 h12 + 2 vy022 h1/a = 0 h1[(r 1)2 h1 + 2vy022/a] = 0 Find roots h1 = -2vy022/[a(r 1)2] h1 = -2(-41.0 m/s)2/ [-9.81 m/s2 (0.580)2] h1 = 1018 m = 1020 m h2 = h1 r = 1610 m

## Falling object problem, p. 63, direct solution

Starting from 2.0 m above floor, volleyball hit straight up, vi = 6.0 m/s. How long in air before it hits floor? Coord. system origin at starting point y = 2.0 m a = -g = -9.81 m/s2 t=?

y = vi t + a t2
a t2 + vi t - y = 0 use quadratic formula A x2 + B x + C = 0 x = -B [B2 4AC]/2A t = -vi [vi2 4(a/2)(-y)]/a = -vi[vi2+2ay]/a =(-6.0 m/s 8.7m/s )/-9.81 m/s2 t = -14.7 m/s / -9.81 m/s2 = 1.50 s

## Falling object problem, p. 63, book solution

Starting from 2.0 m above floor, volleyball hit straight up, vi = 6.0 m/s. How long in air before it hits floor? Coord. system origin at starting point y = 2.0 m a = g = -9.81 m/s2 t=? Use 2 equations to avoid use of quadratic formula vf2 = vi2 + 2 a y vf = vi + a t Once vf known, 2d equation will give t vf = (vi2 + 2ay) = (36 m2/s2 +29.81 m/s22.0 m) = 75 m2/s2 vf = 8.7 m/s (going down) t=(vf vi)/a = 1.50 s

Falling Objects
Falling object prob. 2F, page 63 Key points:
Dont need to know how high it goes only need y Need to pick a coordinate system Need to stick with up as positive If want to avoid quadratic formula, need to use two different equations the first to get vf, the second to get t Forced to decide the sign of vf on your own from physics of problem

Practice
Falling Object Practice 2F, page 64 Problems 1- 6 Section Review, page 65 Problems 1-6 Chapter Review, pages 72-73 Conceptual Problems 34(a-e), 35, 36, 37(a-c) Problems 38-42