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# ONS 15454 MSTP

## DWDM Networking Primer

October 2003

Agenda

Introduction

Optical Fundamentals
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

Optical Fundamentals

Some terminology
Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure)
X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10-.3 = 0.501 Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is power and represents loss or gain.

## Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt

X mW is 10log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW

Wavelength (): length of a wave in a particular medium. Common unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm)
300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, & 1550nm

Frequency (): the number of times that a wave is produced within a particular time period. Common unit: TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per second (Thz)
Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light x = C

## Some more terminology

Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
The extent to which lighting intensity from the source is diminished as it passes through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable can be properly illuminated by a given light source.

## Chromatic Dispersion = Spread of light pulse in

The separation of light into its different coloured rays.

ps/nm-km

ITU Grid = Standard set of wavelengths to be used in Fibre Optic communications. Unit Ghz, e.g. 400Ghz, 200Ghz, 100Ghz

Optical Signal to Noise Ration (OSNR) = Ratio of optical signal power to noise power for the receiver
Lambda = Name of Greek Letter used as Wavelength symbol ()

## Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) = Management channel

dB versus dBm

dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity (Absolute Value) dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)

## Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER < BER threshold of the Rx

BER thresholds are on Data sheets Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12

Optical Budget
Basic Optical Budget = Output Power Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

## Optical Budget is affected by:

Fiber attenuation Splices Patch Panels/Connectors Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc) Bends in fiber Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)

Glass Purity

## Fiber Optics Requires Very High Purity Glass

Window Glass Optical Quality Glass Fiber Optics 1 inch (~3 cm) 10 feet (~3 m) 9 miles (~14 km)

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 dB)

Fiber Fundamentals
Attenuation Dispersion Nonlinearity Distortion It May Be a Digital Signal, but Its Analog Transmission

## Analog Transmission Effects

Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

## Dispersion and Nonlinearities:

Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Fiber Geometry

## An optical fiber is made of three sections:

The core carries the light signals The cladding keeps the light in the core The coating protects the glass

Coating

Propagation in Fiber
n2
q0
n1 q1 Intensity Profile

Core

Light propagates by total internal reflections at the core-cladding interface Total internal reflections are lossless

## Different Types of Fiber

n2
Multimode fiber
Core diameter varies 50 mm for step index 62.5 mm for graded index Bit rate-distance product >500 MHz-km
n1 Core

Single-mode fiber
Core diameter is about 9 mm Bit rate-distance product >100 THz-km

n2
n1

Core

Optical Spectrum
UV Visible IR 125 GHz/nm

Light
Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR)

## 1480 nm 1550 nm 1625 nm

Communication wavelengths
850, 1310, 1550 nm Low-loss wavelengths

Specialty wavelengths
980, 1480, 1625 nm

Wavelength:

## (nanometers) Frequency: (terahertz)

C = x

Optical Attenuation

## Specified in loss per kilometer (dB/km)

0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm 0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm
1550 Window

## Loss due to absorption by impurities

1400 nm peak due to OH ions

1310 Window

## EDFA optical amplifiers available in 1550 window

Optical Attenuation
Pulse amplitude reduction limits how far
Attenuation in dB Power is measured in dBm:
Examples
10dBm 0 dBM -3 dBm -10 dBm -30 dBm 10 mW 1 mW 500 uW 100 uW 1 uW

Pi
T

P0 T

Types of Dispersion

Chromatic Dispersion
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds Causes spreading of the light pulse

## Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Single-mode fiber supports two polarization states Fast and slow axes have different group velocities Causes spreading of the light pulse

Interference

## A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber

laser used (spectral width) bit-rate (temporal pulse separation) Different SM types

## Limitations From Chromatic Dispersion

Dispersion causes pulse distortion, pulse "smearing" effects Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less robust to Chromatic Dispersion Limits "how fast and how far
10 Gbps
60 Km SMF-28
t

40 Gbps
4 Km SMF-28
t

(G.653 & G.655)

## Dispersion Compensating Fiber

Transmitters with narrow spectral width

## Dispersion Compensating Fiber:

By joining fibers with CD of opposite signs (polarity) and suitable lengths an average dispersion close to zero can be obtained; the compensating fiber can be several kilometers and the reel can be inserted at any point in the link, at the receiver or at the transmitter

## Dispersion Compensation Total Dispersion Controlled

Cumulative Dispersion (ps/nm)
+100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500

## Distance from Transmitter (km) Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Transmitter

Dispersion Compensators

Distance (Km) =

## A laser signal with dispersion tolerance of 3400 ps/nm

is sent across a standard SMF fiber which has a Coefficient of Dispersion of 17 ps/nm*km. It will reach 200 Km at maximum bandwidth.
Note that lower speeds will travel farther.

## Polarization Mode Dispersion

Caused by ovality of core due to:
Manufacturing process Internal stress (cabling)

## Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Ey
nx

Ex

ny
Spreaded Pulse As It Leaves the Fiber

## Pulse As It Enters the Fiber

The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels down the fiber; this is a much weaker phenomenon than chromatic dispersion and it is of little relevance at bit rates of 10Gb/s or less

## Combating Polarization Mode Dispersion

Factors contributing to PMD
Bit Rate Fiber core symmetry Environmental factors Bends/stress in fiber Imperfections in fiber

## Solutions for PMD

Improved fibers Regeneration Follow manufacturers recommended installation techniques for the fiber cable

## Types of Single-Mode Fiber

SMF-28(e) (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.652)
Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest

## DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)

Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm

## NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)

For WDM operation, optimized for 1550 nm region
TrueWave, FreeLight, LEAF, TeraLight Latest generation fibers developed in mid 90s For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems MetroCor, WideLight Low PMD ULH fibers

SMF
(G.652)

## Good for TDM at 1310 nm

OK for TDM at 1550 OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt) OK for TDM at 1310 nm Good for TDM at 1550 nm Bad for DWDM (C-Band) OK for TDM at 1310 nm Good for TDM at 1550 nm Good for DWDM (C + L Bands) Good for TDM at 1310 nm OK for TDM at 1550 nm OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt

DSF (G.653) NZDSF (G.655) Extended Band (G.652.C) (suppressed attenuation in the traditional water peak region)

## The 3 Rs of Optical Networking

A Light Pulse Propagating in a Fiber Experiences 3 Type of Degradations:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Loss of Energy

Shape Distortion

Phase Variation

## Loss of Timing (Jitter)

(From Various Sources) ts Optimum Sampling Time

## The 3 Rs of Optical Networking (Cont.)

The Options to Recover the Signal from Attenuation/Dispersion/Jitter Degradation Are:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

## Amplify to Boost the Power

Re-Shape

DCU

Phase Variation

Phase Re-Alignment

Re-Generate

O-E-O
ts Optimum Sampling Time

## Re-gen, Re-shape and ts Optimum Remove Optical Noise Sampling Time

DWDM

Agenda

Introduction

Components
Forward Error Correction

DWDM Design
Summary

## Increasing Network Capacity Options

More Fibers (SDM)
Same bit rate, more fibers Slow Time to Market Expensive Engineering Limited Rights of Way Duct Exhaust

W D M

Same fiber & bit rate, more s Fiber Compatibility Fiber Capacity Release Fast Time to Market Lower Cost of Ownership Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

## Higher bit rate, same fiber Electronics more expensive

Fiber Networks
Time division multiplexing
Single wavelength per fiber Multiple channels per fiber 4 OC-3 channels in OC-12 4 OC-12 channels in OC-48 16 OC-3 channels in OC-48 Channel 1 Channel n
Single Fiber (One Wavelength)

## Wave division multiplexing

Multiple wavelengths per fiber 4, 16, 32, 64 channels per system Multiple channels per fiber

ln

## TDM and DWDM Comparison

TDM (SONET/SDH)
Takes sync and async signals and multiplexes them to a single higher optical bit rate E/O or O/E/O conversion

## DS-1 DS-3 OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48

Fiber

(D)WDM
Takes multiple optical signals and multiplexes onto a single fiber No signal format conversion
OC-12c OC-48c OC-192c DWDM OADM Fiber

DWDM History
Early WDM (late 80s)
Two widely separated wavelengths (1310, 1550nm)

## Second generation WDM (early 90s)

Two to eight channels in 1550 nm window 400+ GHz spacing

## DWDM systems (mid 90s)

16 to 40 channels in 1550 nm window
100 to 200 GHz spacing

## Next generation DWDM systems

64 to 160 channels in 1550 nm window
50 and 25 GHz spacing

Conventional TDM Transmission10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

120 km

120 km
OA

120 km OA OA

OA

## Drivers of WDM Economics

Fiber underground/undersea
Existing fiber

Conduit rights-of-way
Lease or purchase

Digging
\$15,000 to \$90,000 per Km

3R regenerators
Space, power, OPS in POP Re-shape, re-time and re-amplify

## Simpler network management

Delayering, less complexity, less elements

## Characteristics of a WDM Network

Wavelength Characteristics

Transparency
Can carry multiple protocols on same fiber Monitoring can be aware of multiple protocols

Wavelength spacing
50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz

## Defines how many and which wavelengths can be used

Wavelength capacity
Example: 1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, 10Gb/s

Band

## New Band S-Band C-Band L-Band U-Band

Wavelength (nm) 820 - 900 1260 1360 1360 1460 1460 1530 1530 1565 1565 1625 1625 1675

## 0.80 nm 100 GHz

1553.86 nm
193.0 THz

ITU-T grid is based on 191.7 THz + 100 GHz It is a standard for laser in DWDM systems
Freq (THz) 192.90 192.85 192.80 192.75 192.70 192.65 192.60 ITU Ch 29 28 27 26 Wave (nm) 15201/252 1554.13 x 1554.54 1554.94 x 1555.34 1555.75 x 1556.15 1556.55 x 15216 x x x x 15800 x x x x 15540 x x x x 15454 x x x x

## Fiber Attenuation Characteristics

Attenuation vs. Wavelength
2.0 dB/Km Fibre Attenuation Curve S-Band:14601530nm L-Band:15651625nm

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 C-Band:15301565nm

## Characteristics of a WDM Network

Sub-wavelength Multiplexing or MuxPonding Ability to put multiple services onto a single wavelength

## DWDM provides enormous amounts of scaleable transmission capacity

Unconstrained by speed of available electronics Subject to relaxed dispersion and nonlinearity tolerances Capable of graceful capacity growth

Agenda

Introduction
Components Forward Error Correction DWDM Design

DWDM Components
1 850/1310 15xx 2 3 1...n

1 2 3 1...n

1 2 3

## Typical DWDM Network Architecture

DWDM SYSTEM VOA EDFA DCM DWDM SYSTEM

DCM

EDFA

VOA

## Service Mux (Muxponder)

Transponders
Converts broadband optical signals to a specific wavelength via optical to electrical to optical conversion (O-E-O)

Used when Optical LTE (Line Termination Equipment) does not have tight tolerance ITU optics
Performs 2R or 3R regeneration function Receive Transponders perform reverse function
1 2

OEO

OEO

To DWDM Mux
n

OEO

## Low Cost IR/SR Optics

Wavelengths Converted

Performance Monitoring

## Performance monitoring performed on a per wavelength basis through transponder

Data transparency is preserved

Laser Characteristics
Non DWDM Laser Fabry Perot
Power c

## DWDM Laser Distributed Feedback (DFB)

Power c

Unstable center/peak wavelength
Mirror Partially transmitting Mirror

## Tighter wavelength control

Active medium

Amplified light

Optical Amplifier
Pin Pout = GPin

EDFA amplifiers Separate amplifiers for C-band and L-band Source of optical noise Simple

## OA Gain and Fiber Loss

Typical Fiber Loss
25 THz 4 THz

OA Gain

## Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Isolator Coupler Coupler Isolator

## Erbium-Doped Fiber (1050m)

Pump Laser Pump Laser

Simple device consisting of four parts: Erbium-doped fiber An optical pump (to invert the population). A coupler An isolator to cut off backpropagating noise

## Optical Signal-to Noise Ratio (OSNR)

Signal Level

X dB

Noise Level

Depends on :
Optical Amplifier Noise Figure:
(OSNR)in = (OSNR)outNF

Pin
NF

## Loss Management: Limitations Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Each EDFA at the Output Cuts at Least in a Half (3dB) the OSNR Received at the Input

## Noise Figure > 3 dB Typically between 4 and 6

Each amplifier adds noise, thus the optical SNR decreases gradually along the chain; we can have only have a finite number of amplifiers and spans and eventually electrical regeneration will be necessary Gain flatness is another key parameter mainly for long amplifier chains

## Optical Filter Technology

Dielectric Filter

1,2,3,...n

1, ,3,...n

## Well established technology, up to 200 layers

Multiplexer / Demultiplexer

DWDM Mux

DWDM Demux

## Wavelength Multiplexed Signals

Wavelength Multiplexed Signals Wavelengths separated into individual ITU Specific lambdas

Drop Channel

## Pass Through loss and Add/Drop loss

Agenda

Introduction

Components
Forward Error Correction

DWDM Design
Summary

Transmission Errors
Errors happen!

## A old problem of our era (PCs, wireless)

Bursty appearance rather than distributed Noisy medium (ASE, distortion, PMD) TX/RX instability (spikes, current surges) Detect is good, correct is better
Information Transmitter

## Noise Transmission Channel

Error Correction
Error correcting codes both detect errors and correct them Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a system
adds additional information to the data stream corrects eventual errors that are caused by the transmission system.

## FEC Performance, Theoretical

FEC gain 6.3 dB @ 10-15 BER
Bit Error Rate

10 -10

10 -20

## BER with FEC

10 -30 -46 -44 -42 -40 -38 -36 -34 -32

## FEC in DWDM Systems

9.58 G IP SDH FEC 10.66 G 10.66 G FEC

9.58 G
IP SDH

FEC
. .

FEC
. .

ATM 2.48 G

FEC
2.66 G 2.66 G

FEC

ATM 2.48 G

FEC implemented on transponders (TX, RX, 3R) No change on the rest of the system

Agenda

Introduction

Components
Forward Error Correction

DWDM Design
Summary

DWDM Challenges

## Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional

Protection

Capacity
Distance

Transmission Effects
Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

## Dispersion and nonlinear effects:

Erodes clarity with distance and speed

## Solution for Attenuation

Loss

Optical Amplification

OA

Dispersion
Dispersion
DCU

Fiber spool

Fiber spool

DCU

+D -D

Length

## Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM

DWDM systems can be implemented in two different ways

Uni-directional:
wavelengths for one direction travel within one fiber two fibers needed for full-duplex system
1 3 5 7 2 4 6 8

Fiber

2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7

Fiber

Uni -directional

Bi-directional:
a group of wavelengths for each direction single fiber operation for fullduplex system

Fiber
5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4

Bi -directional

## Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM (cont.)

Uni-directional 32 channels system
Full band

32 ch full duplex

Full band

## Bi-directional 32 channels system

Blue-band

16 ch full duplex

16 16 16

Red-band

## DWDM Protection Review

Unprotected Client Protected

Splitter Protected

## Y-Cable and Line Card Protected

Unprotected
1 Transponder
1 Client Interface

1 client & 1 trunk laser (one transponder) needed, only 1 path available No protection in case of fiber cut, transponder failure, client failure, etc..

## Client Protected Mode

2 Transponders
2 Client interfaces

2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed, two optically unprotected paths Protection via higher layer protocol

## Optical Splitter Protection

Optical Splitter Working lambda Switch

protected lambda

## Only 1 client & 1 trunk laser (single transponder) needed

Protects against Fiber Breaks

2 Transponders

working lambda

Y cable

protected lambda

## 2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed

Increased cost & availability

## Designing for Capacity

Bit Rate Distance

Solution Space
Wavelengths

## Goal is to maximize transmission capacity and system reach

Figure of merit is Gbps Km Long-haul systems push the envelope Metro systems are considerably simpler

## Designing for Distance

L = Fiber Loss in a Span
Pin
Pout Pnoise

G = Gain of Amplifier
Amplifier Spacing

Link distance (D) is limited by the minimum acceptable electrical SNR at the receiver
Dispersion, Jitter, or optical SNR can be limit

## Amplifier spacing (S) is set by span loss (L)

Closer spacing maximizes link distance (D) Economics dictates maximum hut spacing

## Link Distance vs. OA Spacing

Wavelength Capacity (Gb/s) 20

Amp Spacing
60 km

80 km

4000

6000

8000

## Total System Length (km)

System cost and and link distance both depend strongly on OA spacing

## OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total distance before regeneration

Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime

## 3R with Optical Multiplexor and OADM

Back-to-back DWDM
Express channels must be regenerated Two complete DWDM terminals needed
1 2 3 4 N 7 1 2 3 4 N 7

Provides drop-and- continue functionality
Express channels only amplified, not regenerated Reduces size, power and cost

1 2 3 4 N 7

1 2 3 4 N 7

Agenda

Introduction

Components
Forward Error Correction

DWDM Design
Summary

DWDM Benefits

## DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of scalable transmission capacity today

Provides capacity beyond TDMs capability Supports incremental, modular growth Transport foundation for next generation networks