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Guruligappa Hosamani Ist sem MMD USN:2BA11MMD04

Welding using friction as the major resource No filler material involved Welds created by,
a) Frictional heating b) Mechanical deformation

Invented by TWI in 1991 in England 28 organizations worldwide use FSW

Friction Welding
Heat from mechanical energy conversion
Linear friction welding Rotary friction welding

Friction Stir Welding

Sufficient downward force to maintain pressure and to create friction heat

Shoulder which creates friction heat and welding pressure

Probe which Stir the material

Rotating probe provides friction heat and pressure which joins the material Sufficient downward force to maintain pressure and to create friction heat

Microstructure Analysis

A. Unaffected material B. Heat affected zone (HAZ) C. Thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) D. Weld nugget (Part of thermo-mechanically affected zone)

Microstructure analysis

Optical micrographs of regions (a), (b) and (c) of the stir nugget.

Joint Geometries

It can be used in all positions, Horizontal Vertical Overhead Orbital

Material Suitability
Copper and its alloys Lead Titanium and its alloys Magnesium alloys Zinc Plastics Mild steel Stainless steel Nickel alloys

Welding Steel using FSW

Tools Parameters

Common Tools

Self Reacting Pin Tool

Fixed Pin Tool

Adjustable Pin Tool

Retractable Pin Tool

Some of the FSW Machines

ESAB SuperStir TM machine FW28

ESAB Machine

Diverse materials: Welds a wide range of alloys, including previously un-weldable (and possibly composite materials) Durable joints: Provides twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds. Versatile welds: Welds in all positions and creates straight or complex-shape welds Retained material properties: Minimizes material distortion Safe operation: Does not create hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing

No keyholes: Pin is retracted automatically at end of weld

Tapered-thickness weld joints: Pin maintains full penetration

Comparison with other joining processes

FSW vs Fusion Welding Improved Mechanical Properties Reduced Distortion Reduced Defect Rate Parent Metal Chemistry Simplifies Dissimilar Alloy Welding Fewer Process Variables Eliminates Consumables Reduces Health Hazard FSW vsRivetting Reduced Part Count Reduced Production Time Reduced Defect Rates Increase in Load Carrying Capability Improved Fracture Performance Eliminates Consumables Less Operator Dependent

Work pieces must be rigidly clamped Backing bar required (except where self-reacting tool or directly opposed tools are used) Keyhole at the end of each weld Cannot make joints which required metal deposition (e.g. fillet welds)

Barriers for FSW

Special clamping system necessary Only for simple joint geometries (e.g. butt joint) License required from TWI Few applications in the construction industry Corrosion protection is needed

Future Developments
Laser-assisted friction stir welding Possible use of induction coil and other mechanism

An alternative to fusion welding Advanced technologies are in the offing