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GOOD

AFTERNOON
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

BY : Jeanette C. Sy, MD
For the body to function normally,
homeostasis is very important.

HOMEOSTASIS depends upon the precise


regulation of the organs and the organ
systems of the body.

The NERVOUS and ENDOCRINE


SYSTEMS are the two major systems
responsible for that regulation
Nervous and Endocrine System
- Together they regulate and coordinate the
activity of nearly all other body structures
- When these systems fail to function
properly homeostasis is not maintained
- Any malfunction of either system results to
diseases
REGULATORY FUNCTIONS
NERVOUS ENDOCRINE

1. Controls the activity 1. Releases chemical


of tissues by sending signals into the
action potentials circulatory system,
along axons, which which carries them to
release chemical all parts of the body
signals at their ends
NERVOUS ENDOCRINE

2. Acts more quickly 2. Acts more slowly

3. Short-term effects 3. Longer lasting effects

4. Controls a specific 4. Stimulates several


tissue or organ tissues or organs
FUNCTIONS OF THE
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
The main regulatory function of the
endocrine system include :

3. Water balance
- By controlling the solute concentration of
the blood
2. Uterine contractions and milk release
- Regulates uterine contractions during
delivery of newborn
- Stimulates milk release from the breasts in
lactating females

3. Ion regulation
- Regulates Na+, K+, and Ca 2+
concentrations in the blood
4. Growth, metabolism and tissue
maturation
- Regulates growth of many tissues such as
bone and muscle, and the rate of
metabolism of many tissues
(Maintain a normal body temp and mental
functions)
- Maturation of tissues, which result in the
development of adult features and
behaviors
5. Heart rate and BP regulation
- Ex. Epinephrine and norepinephrine

4. Blood glucose control


- Ex. Insulin and glucagon

7. Immune system regulation


- Helps control the production and
functions of the immune system
2. Reproductive functions control
- Controls the development and the
functions of the reproductive systems in
males and females
CHEMICAL SIGNALS
- Are molecules released from one location
that move to another location to produce
as response
- Types :
1. Intracellular chemical signals
- produced in one part of the cell and
act on another part of the SAME cell
2. Intercellular chemical signals
- released from one cell, are carried
in the intercellular fluid and
brought to ANOTHER cell
Functional Classification of
Intercellular Chemical Signals
1. AUTOCRINE
- Secreted by cells in a local area and
influence the activity of the SAME CELL
TYPE from which it was secreted
- Ex. Eicosanoids
(prostaglandins, thromboxanes,
prostacyclins, leukotrienes)
2. PARACRINE
- Secreted into tissue spaces
- usually has a localized effect on other
tissues
- Ex. Histamine
3. HORMONE
- Secreted into the blood
- Travels some distance to target tissues
- Influences specific activities
- Ex. Thyroid hormones, GH, insulin,
epinephrine, estrogen, progesterone,
testosterone
1. NEUROHORMONE
- Produced by neurons and functions like
hormones
- Ex. Oxytocin, ADH
1. NEUROTRANSMITTER
- Or Neuromodulator
- Produced by neurons and secreted into
extracellular spaces by presynaptic
nerve terminals and influences
postsynaptic cells
1. PHEROMONE
- Are chemicals emitted by living
organisms to send messages to
individuals of the same species
- Modifies physiology and behavior of
individuals
- Have direct effects on sexual habits
- “Aphrodisiacs” or “Secret seducers”
RECEPTORS
- Are proteins or glycoproteins
- Chemical signals bind to receptors to
produce a response
- RECEPTOR SITE is the portion of the
receptor where a chemical signal binds
- Only a specific type of chemical binds to a
specific type of receptor = SPECIFICITY
TYPES OF RECEPTOR
1. MEMBRANE-BOUND RECEPTORS
- located in the cell membrane
3. INTRACELLULAR RECEPTORS
- Located in either the cytoplasm or
nucleus of the cell
MEMBRANE-BOUND RECEPTOR
RESPONSES
1. Receptors that directly alter membrane
permeability
2. Receptors and G proteins (GTP)
- open and close membrane channels to produce a
response
- activate enzymes that produce intracellular
chemical signals
3. Receptors that directly alter the activity of
enzymes
HORMONES
- Endocrine derived from the Greek words
endo and krino meaning
“within” and “to separate”
- are produced within and secreted from
endocrine glands but have effects at
locations that are away from the glands
that secret them
- Ex. Thyroid and Adrenal Glands
Exocrine glands
- Secrete their products into ducts which
exit the glands and carry the secretory
products to an external or internal surface
such as the skin or digestive tract
- Ex. Sweat and the Salivary glands
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

- Consists of the endocrine glands of the body

- HORMONES are the intercellular chemical


signals secreted by the endocrine glands

- NEUROHORMONES are hormones secreted


from cells of the nervous system
HORMONES
- are distributed in the blood to all parts of
the body, but only certain tissues called
“target tissues” respond to each type of
hormone
- Chemical categories :
a. Protein derivatives
ex. Hormones of anterior pituitary gland
b. Lipid derivatives
- 1. Eicosanoids
(derived from the fatty acid
arachidonic acid)
includes : PG, thromboxanes,
prostacyclins, leukotrienes
1. Sex steroids
- a. Estrogen = fr adrenal cortex & gonads
= affect function and
maturation of female secondary
sex organs
(female sexual determination)
- b. Progestins = fr ovaries and placenta
= mediate menstruation and
maintain pregnancy
c. Androgens = or testosterone
= fr adrenal cortex &
gonads
= affects male secondary sex
organs
(male sexual determination)
3. Mineralocorticoid = aldosterone

4. Glucocorticoid = cortisol
REGULATION OF HORMONE
SECRETION
- Controlled by :
NEGATIVE-FEEDBACK MECHANISMS
Regulation of…………. cont

3 Ways of Hormone secretion regulation


1. Blood levels of chemicals
ex. Insulin secretion is controlled by
blood glucose levels
3 Ways……….cont.

3. Hormones
- Secretion of some hormones is
controlled by other hormones
- Ex. Pituitary gland hormones acts on
ovaries and testes, causing those organs
to secrete sex hormones
3 Ways………….cont.

3. Nervous System
- Secretion of some hormones is
controlled by the nervous system
- Ex. Epinephrine is released from the
adrenal medulla as a result of nervous
system stimulation
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
AND THEIR HORMONES
REMEMBER :

Endocrine system consists of


ductless glands, which secrete
hormones directly into the
circulatory system
PITUITARY AND
HYPOTHALAMUS
- Pituitary gland or hypophysis
is a small gland about the size of a pea
Divided into 2 parts:
a. anterior pituitary
b. posterior pituitary
- Hypothalamus is an important autonomic
nervous system and endocrine control
center of the brain
- The secretion of hormones from the
anterior pituitary is controlled by
RELEASING HORMONES, which are
produced by the nerve cells of the
hypothalamus
- Releasing hormones either stimulates or
inhibits release of pituitary hormones
- Are transported through the capillary beds
and veins called
“HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY PORTAL”
SYSTEM
HYPOTHALAMUS
Releasing
hormones
(hypo-pit portal system)
PITUITARY GLAND

Hormones
(circulatory system)
TARGET TISSUES
(response)
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR
PITUITARY GLAND
1. Growth hormone (GH)
2. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
6. Prolactin
7. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR
PITUITARY
1. GROWTH HORMONE
- Stimulates growth of bones, muscles and
other organs by increasing protein
synthesis
- Def: due to abn development of pituitary
Pituitary dwarf (small & proportioned)
- Excess : due to hormone secreting tumors
Gigantism (abnormally tall)
REMEMBER :

If excess hormone is secreted after growth


in bone length is complete, growth in
diameter but not in length continues, as a
result facial features and hands become
large

ACROMEGALY
SOMATOMEDINS
- A group of protein chemical signals that
partly influence the effect of GH
- GH increases somatomedin secretion
from tissues such as liver
- Somatomedins bind to receptors on cells
of tissues such as bone and cartilage and
stimulate growth
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR
PITUITARY GLAND
• Growth hormone (GH)
• Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
• Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
• Luteinizing hormone (LH)
• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
• Prolactin
• Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
2. THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE
- Binds to thyroid gland cell receptors and
cause the cells to produce
Thyroid Hormone
- TSH secretion is regulated by
Thyroid Releasing Hormones (TRH)
from the hypothalamus
- Too much TSH causes the thyroid gland
to enlarge and secrete too much thyroid
hormone
- Too little TSH causes the thyroid gland to
decrease in size and too little thyroid
hormone is secreted
THYROID GLAND
- Made up of 2 lobes connected by a narrow band
called the ISTHMUS
- Lobes are located on either side of the trachea,
inferior to the larynx
- One of the largest endocrine glands
- Contains numerous THYROID FOLLICLES
- PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS are the connective
tissues that surrounds the follicles
THYROID ……..cont.

- Cells of the thyroid follicles synthesize


THYROID HORMONES which are stored
in the follicles
- Main function of thyroid gland is to secrete
THYROID HORMONES, which regulate
the rate of metabolism in the body
THYROID HORMONES
1. THYROXINE / TETRAIODOTHYRONINE
- Contains 4 iodine atoms (T4)

2. TRIIODOTHYRONINE
- Contains 3 iodine atoms (T3)
Thyroid gland requires IODINE to
synthesize hormones

Iodine is taken by the thyroid follicles in


which hormone synthesis occurs

Thyroid hormones are stored in combination


with a protein called THYROGLOBULIN
within the thyroid follicles
REMEMBER :

If the quantity of iodine present is not


sufficient, the production and secretion of
the thyroid hormones decrease
Thyroid hormone secretion is regulated by
TSH from the anterior pituitary gland.

INC TSH = INC T3 / T4 synthesis


DEC TSH = DEC T3 / T4 synthesis

Regulated by negative feedback system


Low blood T3/T4 High blood T3/T4

Stimulates Dec TSH-Releasing


Hypothalamus Hormone
Inc TSH releasing
hormone
Dec TSH from Ant
Inc TSH fr Ant Pituitary Pituitary

Inc T3/T4 synthesis Dec T3/T4 synthesis


When T3/T4 secretion is reduced below
normal, TSH releasing hormone from
hypothalamus and TSH from anterior
pituitary increases substantially.

Excess TSH causes the thyroid gland to


enlarge, a condition called a GOITER
IODINE DEFICIENCY GOITERS

- Develops if the iodine in the diet is too low.


Less T3/T4 is synthesized.
- TSH-releasing hormone and TSH
increases above normal levels and cause
dramatic enlargement of the thyroid gland.
A deficiency of iodine is not as common as
it used to be. There are table salt with
iodine (IODIZED SALT) added to it that
are available nowadays.
RA 8172
An Act Promoting Salt Iodization
Nationwide and for related purposes and
ASIN Law providing the use of iodine in
the food for healthy citizenry.
REMEMBER :

Growth and development cannot proceed


normally without a normal rate of thyroid
hormone secretion.
HYPOTHYROIDISM

- Lack of thyroid hormones


- In infants, hypothyroidism can result in
CRETINISM (a person is mentally
retarded has a short stature with
abnormally formed skeletal structures)
- In adults, it results in reduced rate of
metabolism, sluggishness and a reduced
ability to perform routine tasks and
MYXEDEMA (accumulation of fluid and
other molecules in the SQ tissue)
HYPERTHYROIDISM

- Elevated rate of thyroid hormone secretion


- Results in elevated rate of metabolism,
extreme nervousness and chronic fatigue
GRAVE’S DISEASE
- A type of hyperthyroidism resulting from
the production of abnormal proteins by the
immune system that are similar in
structure and function to TSH
- Often accompanied by bulging of the eyes
known as “EXOPHTHALMIA”
In GRAVE’S DISEASE, the immune
system produces a large amount of
protein that is so much like TSH that it
binds to cells of the thyroid gland and acts
like TSH.

Unlike TSH, the secretion of this protein


does not respond to negative feedback
system.
CALCITONIN
- Secreted by parafollicular cells
- It is secreted if the blood concentration of
Ca2+ becomes too high
- Inhibits bone resorption of Ca2+ by
inhibiting osteoclasts
PARATHYROID GLANDS
- FOUR tiny glands are embedded in the
posterior wall of the thyroid gland
- Secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE
(PTH) for blood Ca2+ regulation
- More important that Calcitonin in Ca2+
regulation
- PTH acts to raise blood Ca2+ levels to
normal
PTH Calcium Regulation
1. Increases the absorption of Ca2+ from
the intestine by causing an increase in
active Vit D formation
2. Increases resorption (breakdown) of
bone tissue to release Ca2+ into the
circulatory system
3. Decreases the rate at which Ca2+ are
lost in the urine
VITAMIN D
- Increases absorption of Ca2+ and raises
blood Ca2+ levels.
- It is produced from precursors in the skin
that are modified by the liver and kidneys
- UV light acting on the skin is required for
the 1st stage of Vit D synthesis
- Can also be supplied in the diet
REMEMBER :

Prolonged bone resorption (breakdown)


due to decrease blood Ca2+ level results
in reduced bone density.

Reduced bone density causes soft,


flexible bones that are easily deformed in
young people and are porous, fragile
bones in older people
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
- Abnormally high PTH (high Ca2+)
- Can result from a tumor of parathyroid
gland
- Bones become soft and easily fractured
- Excess Ca2+ = kidney stones
- Ms and nerves become less excitable
resulting to fatigue and weakness
HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
- Abnormally low PTH (low Ca2+)
- Can result from injury or surgical removal of
the thyroid and parathyroid glands
- Dec rate of bone resorption
- reduced vit D formation
- Ms and nerves become excitable resulting to
frequent cramps and tetanus
- TETANUS can affect respiratory ms = Death
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR
PITUITARY GLAND
• Growth hormone (GH)
• Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
• Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
• Luteinizing hormone (LH)
• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
• Prolactin
• Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
3. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
- Binds to the receptors on cells in the
adrenal gland cortex
- Increases secretion of CORTISOL
(Hydrocortisone) from adrenal gland
- ACTH secretion is regulated by
CORTICOTROPIC RELEASING
HORMONE from the hypothalamus
ADRENAL GLANDS
- Known also as “SUPRARENAL GLANDS”
- Are 2 small glands located superior to
each kidney
- 2 Parts :
1. Adrenal medulla – marrow or middle
2. Adrenal cortex – bark or outer
- Adrenal medulla and cortex function
separately
ADRENAL MEDULLA
- Principal hormone released is
EPINEPHRINE or ADRENALIN and small
amounts of NOREPINEPHRINE
- EPI and NE are released in response to
stimulation by the
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
- Referred as “fight-or-flight” hormones coz
of their role in preparing the body for
vigorous physical activity
MAJOR EFFECTS OF
EPINEPHRINE AND NE
1. Increases breakdown of glycogen to
glucose in the liver, the release of
glucose into the blood and the release of
FA from fat cells
(Glucose and fatty acids are used as
energy sources to maintain the body’s
increased rate of metabolism)
2. Increase in heart rate, which causes BP
to increase

3. Stimulation of smooth muscle in the walls


of arteries supplying the internal organs
and the skin, but not those supplying
skeletal muscle.
4. Increase in BP because of smooth
muscle contraction in the walls of blood
vessels in the internal organs and the skin

5. Increase in the metabolic rate of several


tissues, esp skeletal muscle, cardiac
muscle and nervous tissue
PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA
- A benign tumor of the adrenal medulla
- Symptoms result from the release of the
large amounts of epinephrine and NE from
the tumor
- Sx : HPN, sweating, nervousness, pallor
and tachycardia
- HPN increases the chance of heart attack
and stroke
ADRENAL CORTEX
- 3 Classes of Steroid Hormones secreted :
1. GLUCOCORTICOIDS
- help regulate blood nutrient levels in the
body
a.CORTISOL = major glucocorticoid
b.CORTISONE = closely related to cortisol
CORTISOL
- Inc the breakdown of protein and fat and
inc their conversion to source of energy
- During STRESS, it aids the body in
responding to stressful situations by
providing energy sources for the tissues
- Reduces inflammatory response
CORTISONE
- A drug similar to cortisol
- Is sometimes given to people who have
severe allergies or extensive inflammation,
or to people who suffer autoimmune dses
3 Classes Steroid Hormones………cont.
2. MINERALOCORTICOIDS
- Help regulate blood volume and blood
levels of K+ and Na+
a. ALDOSTERONE
- major hormone of this class
- binds to receptors in the kidney,
intestine, sweat glands and salivary
glands
ALDOSTERONE
- Causes Na+ and H2O to be retained in the
body
- Increases rate of K+ elimination
- Secretion affected by :
a. directly – serum Na+ and K+ (K+ > Na+)
b. indirectly – RENIN secretion
Low RENIN ( fr kidneys)
BP

ANGIOTENSINOGEN ANGIOTENSIN I
Angiotensin-converting
enzyme (ACE)

ANGIOTENSIN II

Smooth ms in BV Acts on Adrenal Cortex


to constrict ( BP) to inc ALDOSTERONE
3 Classes Steroid Hormones………..cont.

3. ANDROGENS
- ability to stimulate the development of male
sexual characteristics
- Males : most are secreted by testes
- Females : it influence the female sex drive
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR
PITUITARY GLAND
• Growth hormone (GH)
• Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
• Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
• Luteinizing hormone (LH)
• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
• Prolactin
• Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
1. GONADOTROPINS
- Luteinizing hormone (LH) and
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
- Binds to receptors on the cells of the
gonads (ovaries and testes)
- Regulate the growth, development and
functions of the gonads
- LH and FSH secretion is regulated by
GONADOTROPIN RELEASING
HORMONE from the hypothalamus
LH
- IN FEMALES :
Causes the ovulation of oocytes and the
secretion of sex hormones ESTROGEN
and PROGESTERONE from the ovaries

- IN MALES :
referred as INTERSTITIAL CELL-
STIMULATING HORMONE (ICSH)
Stimulates interstitial cells of the testes to
secrete TESTOSTERONE
FSH
- Stimulates the development of follicles in
the ovaries and sperm cells in the testes
REMEMBER :

Without LH and FSH, the ovaries and


sperm cells in the testes decrease in
size, no longer produce oocytes and
sperm cells, and no longer secrete
hormones
TESTES AND OVARIES
- Secretes hormones in addition to
producing sperm cells and oocytes
- Hormones produced are important in the
development of the sexual characteristics
IN MALES :
TESTOSTERONE
- Main sex hormone in males
- Responsible for growth and development
of the ff :
a. male reproductive structures
b. muscle enlargement
c. growth of body hair
d. voice changes
e. male sexual drive
IN FEMALES : 2 MAIN CLASSES OF SEX
HORMONES
ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE
- Secretion is regulated by FSH and LH
- Both contribute to the development and
function of the female characteristics
a. breast enlargement
b. fat distribution
c. regulate female menstrual cycle
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR
PITUITARY GLAND
• Growth hormone (GH)
• Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
• Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
• Luteinizing hormone (LH)
• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
• Prolactin
• Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
5. PROLACTIN
- Binds to receptors in the cells of the breast
and helps promote development of the
breast and milk production during
pregnancy
- 2 releasing hormones regulate prolactin
secretion (one inc and one dec secretion)
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR
PITUITARY GLAND
• Growth hormone (GH)
• Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
• Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
• Luteinizing hormone (LH)
• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
• Prolactin
• Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
6. MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING
HORMONE
- Binds to receptors on melanocytes and
causes them to synthesize MELANIN
- Overproduction of melanin = skin darkening
- 2 releasing hormones regulate MSH
secretion (one inc and one dec MSH prod)
REMEMBER :

The structure of ACTH and MSH are


similar. Both hormones causes skin to
darken.
HORMONES OF THE
POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
1. ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)
2. OXYTOCIN
POST PIT HORMONES…….cont.

1. ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE
- Also known as VASOPRESSIN
- Binds to receptors and increases water
reabsorption by kidney tubules
- Result : Less water lost as urine
- INC ADH : concentrated urine
- DEC ADH : dilute urine
DIABETES INSIPIDUS (DI)
- Lack of ADH or vasopressin
- Results to :
1. large volume of urine output
2. inc osmolality of the body fluids and
the loss of important electrolytes (Na+, K+,
Ca2+) in the urine
- 2 Types :
1. Central DI
2. Nephrogenic DI
CENTRAL DI
- Is caused by damage of hypothalamus or
pituitary gland as a result of infection,
head injury, surgery or tumor
- More common
NEPRHOGENIC DI
- Occurs as a result of defect in parts of the
kidneys that reabsorb water back into the
bloodstream
- Less common
- Kidney problems can be due to :
drug toxicity (amphothericin B, lithium)
kidney disease (polycystic kidney dse)
POST PIT HORMONES…….cont.

2. OXYTOCIN
- causes contraction of the smooth muscle
cells of the uterus and milk ejection, or
milk “let-down” from the breasts in
lactating mother
DIFFERENT ENDOCRINE
GLANDS
• Pineal body
• Pituitary gland
• Thyroid gland
• Thymus gland
• Adrenal gland
• Pancreas
• Gonads
PINEAL BODY
- Is a small pinecone-shaped structure
located superior and posterior to the
thalamus of the brain
- Produces MELATONIN
- Melatonin acts to inhibit the functions of
the reproductive system by decreasing LH
and FSH
thalam
us
THYMUS GLAND
- pink-gray organ in the upper part of the
mediastinum behind the sternum
- Lymphocytes are processed into
T-lymphocytes which is responsible for
cellular immunity
- Help cells to recognize and destroy
invading bacteria, viruses, abnormal cell
growth like cancer cells
PANCREAS
- 2 PARTS :
a. exocrine – secretes digestive enzymes
b. endocrine – secretes hormones
- made up of islets of Langerhans
- Islets : Alpha cells – glucagon
Beta cells - insulin
REMEMBER :

It is important to maintain blood glucose


levels within a normal range of values.

A decline in the blood glucose level can


cause the nervous system to malfunction
because GLUCOSE is the main source of
energy
When blood glucose decreases, fats
and proteins are broken down rapidly to
provide as alternative source of energy

Fatty acids are converted to KETONES


by the liver and are released into the
circulation.

Fatty acids and Ketones can cause ph


to decrease causing ACIDOSIS.
If blood glucose is too high, the kidneys
produce large volumes of urine output
containing substantial amounts of
GLUCOSE.

Rapid loss of water in the form of urine


results to DEHYDRATION.
INSULIN
- Released fr beta cells in response to high
blood glucose
- Stimulated also by increased amino acids
- Major target tissues : liver, adipose tissue,
muscles and the area of hypothalamus
that controls the appetite, called the
“SATIETY CENTER”
INSULIN………..cont.

- Insulin binds to receptors and cause :


Inc rate of glucose and amino acid uptake in
these tissues
Glucose is converted to glycogen and fat
Amino acids are used to synthesize protein
DIABETES MELLITUS
- Result from :
a. too little insulin secretion fr pancreas
b. insufficient numbers of insulin receptors
on target cells
c. defective receptors
In DM, tissues cannot take up glucose
effectively, blood glucose levels become
very high “HYPERGLYCEMIA”

Excess glucose in the blood is excreted in


the urine. Thus urine volume becomes
very high “POLYURIA”

Results to dehydration and excessive


thirst “POLYDIPSIA”
Despite high blood glucose, fats and
proteins are broken down to provide
energy source for metabolism.
“POLYPHAGIA”

Results to wasting of body tissues, acidosis,


ketosis and lack of energy
GLUCAGON
- Released from the alpha cells when blood
glucose is low
- Binds to receptors primarily in the liver
- Result : conversion of
GLYCOGEN stored GLUCOSE
SUMMARY
Insulin and Glucagon regulate blood sugar
High BG causes inc insulin and dec
glucagon
Low BG causes dec insulin and inc glucagon
Epinephrine and Cortisol
- Breakdown of protein and fats
- Synthesis of glucose
Growth hormone
- Slows protein breakdown
- Favors fat breakdown
THANK YOU