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UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY

10TH EDITION By Robert Feldman Powerpoint slides by Kimberly Foreman Revised for 10th Ed by Cathleen Hunt

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TWO: PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

CHAPTER

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MODULE 4: The Scientific Method


What
What

is the scientific method?

role do theories and hypotheses play in psychological research?

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MODULE 4: The Scientific Method


Scientific

Method

Four main steps 1. Identifying questions of interest 2. Formulating an explanation 3. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation 4. Communicating the findings

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Theories: Specifying Broad Explanations

Theories
Broad explanations and predictions concerning

phenomena of interest

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Hypotheses: Crafting Testable Predictions


Hypothesis

Prediction stated in a way that allows it to be

tested Stems from theories


Operational

Definition

Translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable

procedures that can be measured and observed


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MODULE 5: Conducting Psychological Research


What

research methods do psychologists

use?
How

do psychologists establish cause-andeffect relationships in research studies?

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MODULE 5: Conducting Psychological Research


Research

Systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new

knowledge.
Descriptive

Research

Systematic investigation of a person, group, or

pattern of behavior.

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Archival Research
Existing

data is used to investigate a hypothesis:


Census documents

College records
Newspaper clippings

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Naturalistic Observation

Investigator observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation

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Survey Research
A sample

of people chosen to represent a larger group of interest (a population) is asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes

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The Case Study


An

in-depth, intensive investigation of a single individual or a small group


Often includes psychological testing

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Correlational Research
Two

sets of variables are examined to determine whether they are associated, or correlated
Variables Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way Correlation coefficient Positive Negative 14

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Aggression and TV Watching

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Experimental Research
Researcher

investigates the relationship between two or more variables by deliberately changing one variable in a controlled situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation
Experimental manipulation
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Experimental Research
Experimental

Groups and Control Groups

Treatment Manipulation implemented by the experimenter Experimental group Receives a treatment Control group Receives no treatment Rules out other reasons for change
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Experimental Research
Independent

and Dependent Variables

Independent The condition that is manipulated by an experimenter Dependent The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenters manipulation of the independent variable
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Experimental Research
Random Assignment

of Participants

To make the experiment a valid test of the

hypothesis
Random Assignment

to Condition

Participants are assigned to different

experimental groups or conditions on the basis of chance


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Experimental Research
Significant

Outcome

Using statistical analysis, researchers can

determine whether a numeric difference is a real difference or is due merely to chance


Replication

Repeating experiment Meta-analysis


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MODULE 6: Critical Research Issues


What

major issues confront psychologists conducting research?

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The Ethics of Research


Informed

Consent

Participants sign a document affirming that they

have been told the basic outlines of the study:


awareness of what their participation will involve what risks the experiment may hold participation is purely voluntary voluntarily terminate study at any time

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Should Animals Be Used in Research?

Procedures that subject animals to distress are permitted only when an alternative procedure is unavailable and when the research is justified by its prospective value

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Threats to Experimental Validity: Avoiding Experimental Bias


Experimental

Bias

Factors that distort the way the independent

variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment


Experimenter expectations Participant expectations
Placebo

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