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Chapter 6-3

Water’s Polarity
• Water is a "polar"
molecule, meaning that
there is an uneven
distribution of electron
density. Water has a
partial negative charge
near the oxygen atom
due the unshared pairs of
electrons, and partial
positive charges near the
hydrogen atoms.
Water’s Polarity
• An attraction between
the partial positive
charge near the
hydrogen atoms and
the partial negative
charge near the
oxygen results in the
formation of a
hydrogen bond as
Mixtures with Water
• A Solution is a
homogenous mixture
(homo means same
so a homogenous
mixture is uniform
throughout )
• 2 components of a
mixture are the
SOLVENT and the
Mixtures with Water
• Heterogeneous
Mixtures are not the
same throughout –
hetero means
• A suspension is a
type of
mixture – where one
substance is
suspended in another
Mixtures with Water
• Another type of
Heterogeneous Mixtures
is a colloid
• are mixtures with
characteristics part way
between a solution and a
suspension. Colloidal
dispersions may appear
homogeneous but are
actually heterogeneous.
Colloidal dispersions do
not settle when left
standing undisturbed for
a period of time. Paint is a colloid because it is made of tiny
particles of color that float in a liquid
instead of dissolving in it.
What’s the Solution?
Acid or Base
Understanding pH
• Chemicals can be grouped by their
• One of these properties is pH, which tells
you whether a substance is an acid, a
base, or between an acid and a base
called a neutral.
What is pH?
• The p stands for potential, or power.
• The H stands for the chemical symbol for
• The pH of a solution is how acidic or
basic it is.
Acids and Bases
• Acids: • Bases:
– Acids are a group of – Bases are the
sour chemicals. They opposite of acids.
contain hydrogen. They contain a
When a food tastes hydroxide ion, and feel
sour, it usually slippery or soapy.
contains an acid. Bases in food have no
strong taste.
• All acids release H+ into solution (and all bases
release OH-). acids and bases counteract each
other. This idea, that a base can make an acid
weaker, and vice versa, is called neutralization.
• Neutralization: acids release H+ into solution
and bases release OH-. If we were to mix an
acid and base together, the H+ ion would
combine with the OH- ion to make the molecule
H2O, or plain water:
• H+(aq)+ OH-(aq) H2O
• The neutralization reaction of an acid with a
base will always produce water and a salt.
Water and pH
• All substances are made up of millions of tiny atoms. These atoms
form small groups called molecules. In water, for example, each
molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
The formula for a molecule of water is H2O. "H" means hydrogen,
"2" means 2 hydrogen atoms, and the "O" means oxygen.
Acids and Bases in Water
• When an acid is poured into water, it gives up H (hydrogen) to
the water. When a base is poured into water, it gives up OH
(hydroxide) to the water.
The pH scale
• pH is measured
On a scale from 0-
• pH levels from
0-6 is acidic.
• pH levels from
8-14 is basic.
• pH of 7 is
pH Facts:
• As acids get stronger, pH gets lower. A
pH of 1 is a very strong acid.
• As bases get stronger, pH gets higher. A
pH of 14 is a very strong base.
• Can you think of some foods that might be
a base or an acid? (remember, acids taste
sour, bases don’t have much of a taste)
Why is pH important?
• Both humans and aquatic (water) organisms depend on
• The pH of water must be within a range of 5 to 9 in order
for organisms to survive.
• Waters with a pH less than about 5 are too acidic for
humans to drink and cannot allow most aquatic life to
survive. Low pH can also cause the pipes our water
comes out of to wear away.
• Waters that are too basic can also harm humans, plants,
and animals. Water with a pH of greater that 9 can
dissolve materials such as animal scales and skin.
Why do pH levels change?
• pH can be affected by the chemicals in the
• The pH of water affects organisms living in the
water. A changing pH in water can mean that
there is an increase of pollution or some other
environmental factor.
• Things such as burning fossil fuels (like with
cars), mining, chemical spills, runoff (washing
cars and farming), and sewage cause pH levels
to change.
• It’s very important that the pH levels of
water don’t increase or decrease too much
out of a certain range.
• This change could affect food chains and
the survival of species.
Examples of pH levels
• Water: should be between 5 and 9 for most
aquatic organisms to live.
• Algae: grow best between 7.5 and 8.4.
• Acid Rain: 1-3, battery acid: 0
• Aquatic bacteria can live in a pH level between 2
and 13 and plants between 6 and 13. Organisms
such as carp, catfish, bass, bluegill, snails,
clams, mussels and trout can be found in pH
levels between 6 and 9.
Page 165 - Assessment
• 1. Water’s ability to increase and decrease
hydrogen ions helps maintain PH
Page 164 - Assessment
• 2. As a polar molecule electrons in
hydrogen atom bonds are closest to the
oxygen atom creating a negative charge
that attracts positive ions in solutions
Page 164 - Assessment
• 3. Hydrochloric acid –
acidic pH2.
• Water –neutral ph7
• Sodium hydroxide –
basic – ph14
Page 165 - Assessment
• A solution is a liquid that
contains a dissolved
substance -- a solid,
liquid, or gas. The solvent
is the liquid in which the
substance is dissolved.
The solute is the
substance dissolved in
the liquid. Solutions do
not have to be liquid.
There are solid solutions,
such as glass, and
gaseous solutions, such
as air.