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Ankit Sethi BTECH (ECE),5TH SEM

Introduction to embedded system Block Diagram Application History Characteristics Introduction to RF Based Remote Controlled Robot Features Applications Block Diagram Working Specifications and Solutions Overall Robot Design Hardware & Software Requirements Conclusions Future scope of Robots References

Embedded Systems
Part 1

What is an Embedded System ?

An embedded system is a combination of singlepurpose computer and software that is built into a larger system for the purposes of controlling, monitoring and communication without any human intervention. Embedded systems are at the core of every modern electronic product, ranging from toys to medical equipment to aircraft control systems.

Why Embedded system ?


Technology Advances
CMOS VLSI dominates older technologies

Computer architecture improvements

RISC (reduced instruction set computer) RAID (redundant array of independent disks)


Simpler development
CMOS VLSI: smaller systems, fewer components

Higher volumes
CMOS VLSI : same device cost 10,000 vs. 10,000,000 units

An Embedded system

A generic embedded system

Applications of Embedded System

Embedded systems are commonly found in consumer, cooking, industrial, automotive, medical, commercial and military services. Telecommunications systems employ numerous embedded systems from telephone switches for the network to cell phones at the end-users. Computer networking uses dedicated routers and network bridges to route data which is designed by using embedded systems. Transportation systems from flight to automobiles increasingly use embedded systems. New airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers that are programmed using embedded systems. Medical equipment uses embedded systems for vital signs monitoring, electronic stethoscopes for amplifying sounds, and various medical imaging (CT, MRI) for non-invasive internal inspections. Modern cars: Up to 100 or more processors Engine control unit, ABS systems (Anti Lock Brake systems) Emissions control Security systems Accessories (doors, windows etc)

Brief History of Embedded Systems

The Apollo Guidance Computer, the first recognizable modern embedded system developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory

Other developments
First Microprocessor Intel 4004 Required external memory and support chips cost of a microcontroller fell below $1 By mid 1980s micro controllers came into existence

By the end of the 80s, embedded systems were the norm rather than the exception

Characteristics of Embedded Systems

CPU Platform Peripherals Tools Reliability Volume

Many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM, MIPS, x86, PIC, 8051 etc. Desktop computer market is limited to just a few architectures.

CPU Platform

Serial Communication Interfaces Universal Serial Bus (USB) Networks: Ethernet, Controller Area Network Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)



Embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers, and debuggers Utilities to add a checksum or CRC to a program Emulator replaces the microprocessor with a simulated equivalent.

Reliability Issues

System cannot be shut down for repair Solutions involve subsystem for repair system must be kept running for safety and monetary reasons

RF Based Remote Control Robot

Part 2:-


Remote controlled robot is a Programmed remote controlled vehicle capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car. The remote controlling is based on Radio Frequency mode. Our proposed Robot can move in all four directions (Forward, reverse, left and Right). Another unique feature of this robot is it provides high torque which lifts weight upto 5 Kgs and can can move in inclined planes.

Move in all four directions Range is omni directional upto 10 meters Provided with proper Antenna Offers High Torque Runs on Rechargeable battery Move in inclined planes

The applications of such a Robot are diverse:Driverless Vehicles: These vehicles can have increased reliability and faster reaction time compared to human drivers Planetary Explorations: Exploration on other planets is possible

Defense: These machines are useful in military and defense services as these make autonomous decisions and can attack enemy by planting weapons in their base
Security Patrols and Surveillance: The autonomous robot can be used for Patrolling and Surveillance, hence can be used for maintaining law and order Search and Rescue: These autonomous unmanned machines can go where a human cant go in case of disaster and/or natural calamity and carry out search and rescue operations

Block Diagram


The Robot is fitted with a two D.C.Motors which move the robot in all four directions and controlled by a motor driver (L293D I.C.) L293D is a 16-pin IC which can control a set of two DC motors simultaneously in any direction. Motors are assigned at Port 0 and RF is assigned at port 1 of microcontrollers. The Transmitter used here generates the frequency of 27 Mhz which is received by the receiver fitted on robot for its remote accessing. The remote control arrangement is designed in such a way that each action of the robot requires one press of button i.e. by pressing one button an operator can perform only one operation. After releasing button that particular action will be stopped. In operation we can perform more than one action simultaneously.

Pin 2 = high and Pin 7 = low | Clockwise Direction Pin 2 = low and Pin 7 = high| Anticlockwise Direction Pin 2 = Lowand Pin 7 = Low | Idle [No rotation] [Hi-Impedance state] Pin 2 = Lowand Pin 7 = high | Idle [No rotation]

L293D TruthTable

Specifications and Solutions


Average Speed of 30cms/sec, top speed at least twice that Maximum dimensions :
0.3 m long 0.2 m wide

5 kg payload capacity. Maximum ground pressure of 3 psi (Pounds per Square inch) Optimized dimensions Careful component selection (Tyres, aluminum base, etc.) Custom wheels, and drive train components

Design to achieve those goals:

Overall Robot Design



Hardware Requirement
Toy Car (RF Module) Microcontroller(8051) ISP ISP Components D.C.Motor(150 rpm) Aluminum base + Enhancements Tyres Rechargeable Battery Motor Driver(L293D I.C.) Power Supplies Solder + Iron Ribbon Wire Raw Materials such as Tapes, Rods, Tubing, Glues, Screws etc.

Software Requirement

Conclusion:This project represents a wireless Robot using RF communication and it is designed and implemented with 8051 microcontrollers. A solid and reliable design has been constructed and tested with promising results.

Future scope of Robots

Robots will be as smart as humans are. Robots will be capable of being persons. There will be a viable mechanism for the transfer of a human's mind from a human body to a robot body. Transferring one's mind to a robot will allow one to continue one's existence as the robot.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] -systems

Thank You