Anda di halaman 1dari 16

Axial Bones (Ⅰ)

Bones of Trunk

Composition

vertebrae ( 24 )
sacrum ( 1 )
coccyx ( 1 )
sternum ( 1 )
ribs ( 24 )
1. Vertebrae :

cervical vertebrae - 7
thoracic verterbrae - 12
lumbar vertebrae - 5
sacral vertebrae - 1 (5)
coccygeal vertebrae -1
(4 or 5 )
General features of vertebra
⑸ ⑴
One vertebral body,
⑴ ⑷
one vertebral arch,
seven processes. ⑵
vertebral body ⑴ ⑺ ⑸ ⑹
 vertebral arch ⑵ ⑷

pedicle
⑶ ⑵
lamina
 processes
intervertebral
a single spinous process ⑶ foramen
paired transverse processes⑷
pairs superior⑸ and inferior⑹ articular processes
 vertebral foramen⑺ → vertebral canal
 intervertebral foramen
The characteristics of vertebrae in each region

(1) Cervical vertebra

a. the body: small


b. transverse foramen
c. spinous processes : short and bifid (except 1 , 7 cervical
vertebrae)
d. vertebral foramen : triangular and relatively large
A. Atlas:
the first cervical vertebra.

It looks like an irregular ring . ⑶



•anterior arch ⑴
•posterior arch ⑵
•lateral mass
•dental fovea ⑶ ⑷
•groove for vertebral artery⑷

Body and spinous process absent, consists of anterior


and posterior arches, and two lateral masses.
B. Axis:
the second cervical vertebra.
dontoid process .

C. Vertebra prominens:
the seventh cervical vertebra.
long and nonbifid
apinous process.
Cervical vertebra
(2) Thoracic vertebrae

 superior costal foveae ⑴


 inferior costal foveae ⑵
 transverse costal fovea ⑶ ⑴
 The spinous processes are
long, thin and
posterodownward sloping. ⑶

(3) lumbar vertebrae

•large, thick bodies


•The spinous processes are
heavy, rectangular and
strong, with posterior
directions
•The vertebral foramen is
triangular, but larger than
that in the thoracic
region .
Lumbar vertebrae
(4) Sacrum ⑴

•sacral promontory ⑴

•anterior sacral foramina ⑵ ⑵
•posterior sacral foramina ⑶
•sacral canal ⑷ ⑻
•superior articular processes⑸
•sacral hiatus ⑹
⑸ ⑷
•transverse lines ⑺

(5) Coccyx ⑶
The coccyx is composed of 4-5 fused ⑹
coccygeal vertebrae after the age of

30 years. ⑻
2.Sternum
• jugular
position: lies in the midline of the anterior
notch
wall of thoracic cage (thorax)

manubrium
(2) parts body of sternum
Manubrium
xiphoid process Sternal
Angle
(3) sternal angle
Body of sternum

It is an useful landmark, for


indicating the level of the
second costal cartilage then the
ribs and the intercostal space xiphoid
can be determined. process
3.Ribs

Costal bone
Composition
Costal cartilage

True ribs : the upper 7 ribs, reach to the sternum anteriorly. (1-7)
False ribs: the lower 5 ribs, fail to reach the sternum. (8-12)
Costal arch ------the 8-10th ribs join the costal cartilage
immediately
above to form the costal arch.

Floating ribs------the cartilage of the last two ribs are free.


General features of costal bone

Costal neck

Costal head
Costal angle

Shaft of rib Costal tubercle

Costal groove
First rib : short, sharply curved and flattered
superior and inferior surfaces; inner and outer borders.

anterior scalene tubercle