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READING

OVERVIEW
The teaching of reading skills : focuses on basic literacy with the use of phonics in Years 1 and 2; begins at the word and phrase levels before progressing to sentence recognition and reading at the paragraph level; teaches pupils to extract specific information from a text and to respond to a text with their own ideas and opinions; and enables pupils to become independent readers who are able to comprehend a text effectively and efficiently.

By the end of primary schooling, pupils should be able to:


2.2 demonstrate understanding of a variety of linear and nonlinear texts in the form of print and non-print materials using a range of strategies to construct meaning.
applying word attack skills.

2.3

read independently for information and enjoyment

read fiction and non-fiction


texts with guidance.

read and understand phrases and sentences. read and demonstrate understanding of texts. apply dictionary skills.

The learning standards begin with basic literacy which has been developed incrementally in this manner : distinguish the shapes of the letters; recognise and articulate phonemes; blend and segment words; apply word recognition and word attack skills to acquire vocabulary; read and understand phrases, simple sentences and texts; and read independently for information and enjoyment.

Teachers should also carry out shared reading strategies in the classroom: During shared reading, teacher and pupils read together, thus allowing pupils to actively participate and support one another in the process of reading. Teachers point to the text as they read slowly for word recognition and to build a sense of story. Ultimately, the objective of getting pupils to read a variety of texts enables pupils to see how grammar is used correctly in order to emulate them in their productive skills; speaking and writing. Pupils should also be made to realise that reading inculcates enjoyment and pleasure in seeking information and knowledge. After which, pupils are trained to give their own ideas and opinions in order to become efficient readers.

CONTENT AND LEARNING STANDARDS


CONTENT STANDARDS 2.2 By the end of the 6-year primary schooling, pupils will be able to demonstrate understanding of a variety of linear and non-linear texts in the form of print and non-print materials using a range of strategies to construct meaning. LEARNING STANDARDS 2.2.1 Able to apply word attack skills by identifying: (a) homographs (b) homophones 2.2.2 Able to read and understand phrases and sentences from: (a) linear texts (b) non-linear texts 2.2.3 Able to read and demonstrate understanding of texts by: (a) sequencing (b) predicting with guidance 2.2.4 Able to apply dictionary skills: (a) locate words, (b) meaning of base word.

CONTENT AND LEARNING STANDARDS

CONTENT STANDARDS 2.3 By the end of the 6-year primary schooling, pupils will be able to read independently for information and enjoyment.

LEARNING STANDARDS 2.3.1 Able to read for information and enjoyment with guidance:
(a) fiction (b) non-fiction

ACTIVITY 1
Say these words:
bow

scale

tear

row

What are these words categorised as?


They are words that have the same spelling but different meaning. They may or may not sound alike.

They are called:

Homographs?
Homophones?
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ACTIVITY 2
Say these words:
see meet

sea

meat

blue

blew

pair

pear

What are these words categorised as?


They are words that sound alike. They have different meanings and different spelling.

They are called: Homographs? Homophones?


www.sie.arizona.edu/sysengr/laugh/homograph.html

Can you name the learning standard?

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ACTIVITY 3
It was a blazing summers day. My surroundings were slowly starting to melt: the trees, the houses, the sky and the pathway to my garage. It seemed that I was about to melt too, becoming a puddle of glue-like
The tiger runs. The fish swims. The monkey climbs. The kangaroo hops. The snake glides. The bird flies. The frog jumps. Boys and girls can walk, run, jump, hop and swim.

What are these texts called?

My most favorite place has always been my grandparents house. This is the place I would have to go to before and after school. I have always loved my grandparents house because it made me feel safe and warm. There was a smell of coffee in the air at all times. It seemed like all my grandmother did was make coffee. If I smell coffee, I instantly think of my grandparents house. My grandparents house was always filled with people

1. Begin with a piece of card. 2. Fold the paper in half. 3. Draw a line from the folded edge of the paper to the centre. 4. Fold back the top flap to form a triangle. 5. And then crease with your thumb or finger.
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ACTIVITY 4

Dear Diary, Teacher said: naughty .. pulled Lailas long braid Teacher punished me.

What are these texts called?


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Types of linear and non-linear text


Linear Texts
NARRATIVE / STORY LETTER DIALOGUE TELEPHONE CONVERSATION NEWS / REPORT FACTUAL BOOK REPORT SPEECH

Non-linear Texts
TABLE PLAN / MAP PICTURE GRAPH / BAR PIE CHART TIME TABLE DUTY ROSTER ADVERTISEMENT FORM ANNOUNCEMENT TV PROGRAMME MENU / RECIPE PROCESS / METHOD NOTICE LABEL LIST

Can you name the learning standard?

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SAMPLE READING TEXT In Danger of Extinction


(with Higher Order Thinking Elements [HOTS] incorporated into comprehension questions)

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In Danger of Extinction
A species is the name for a group of animals that are alike, such as lions and tigers. If a species is endangered it means there are very few of those animals left in the world. If all the animals in a species die, the species becomes extinct. Those animals are gone forever. Many species are protected. A protected species means governments have made laws against killing the animals. The koala is close to being an endangered species.
Interestingly, the koala is partly to blame for its decline. Koalas are too stubborn for their own good! When you were younger, were you a picky eater? Did your parents have to force you to eat things that were good for you? Hopefully you listened to what they taught you and ate your dinner. Koalas are picky eaters. They live in tall eucalyptus trees. Many of these trees are also called gum trees. Koalas eat the leaves of 15 those trees.

In Danger of Extinction
Since there are over 600 different types of eucalyptus trees, the koala should have no trouble finding food. But koalas are picky! They only want certain gum tree leaves to eat. Out of the 600 varieties of trees, koalas will only eat the leaves of about 120 kinds of gum tree. Some are even pickier than that. The koalas of a specific area will only eat about four or five kinds of gum leaves. They would rather starve than eat the other kinds. Now thats stubborn! The biggest problem for koalas now is that the brush land in Australia is being cut down. Towns and cities are pushing farther into the brush. Since many koalas live there, they are losing their tree homes and the trees leaves that feed them.
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Answer the following questions based on the reading passage.


1)What does it mean when an animal is extinct? ______________________________________________ 2) Imagine if you were like a koala and ate only one kind of food. What kind of food would it be? (HOTS : Applying) ______________________________________________ 3) What is another name for many gum trees? ______________________________________________ 4) Why do you think the koala is so picky? (HOTS : Analysing) _______________________________________________ 5) What would you tell people to get them to stop cutting down the brush land where koalas live? Why do you think the koala is so picky? (HOTS : Creating and Applying ) ________________________________________________ 17

ACTIVITY 5
Look for these words in the dictionary:

around

booth

sound

How to locate words in the dictionary:

a. Get pupils to look up the first two letters of the word at the top left hand and right hand corner of the page; for eg. for the word alien, look for al. b. After you have identified the first two letters and if there are more than one page with the same letters, look for the next letter. For the word alien; you need to look for ali. c. After finding, ali then scan the page and identify the word. d. The word on the top left hand or right hand corner is called the entry point. The word that you have been looking for is called the exit point.
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Can you name the learning standard?

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Regina Joseph Cyril regina.joseph@moe.gov.my

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