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Konsep ilmiah tertua : semua materi dapat dipecah menjadi zarah (partikel terkecil, yang tidak bisa dibagi

lebih lanjut

Partikel ini berada dalam gerakan yang konstan, tetapi dapat bergabung membentuk suatu kombinasi yang mantap. Potongan paling kecil dari materi yang tidak bisa dibagi lagi disebut atom

Melibatkan kejadian kimia Berdasarkan asumsinya pada data kuantitatif

Ditunjang oleh 2 percobaan ( 2 hukum alam) Hukum kekekalan massa Hukum perbandingan tetap

Using the Law of Conservation of Mass


You heat 2.53 g of metallic mercury in air, which produces 2.73 g of a redorange residue. Assume that the chemical change is the reaction of the metal with oxygen in air. Mercury + oxygen red-orange residue

What is the mass of oxygen that reacts? When you strongly heat the red-orange residue, it decomposes to give back mercury and releases the oxygen, which you collect. What is the mass of oxygen you collect?

Jumlah massa zat-zat yang ada sebelum reaksi sama dengan jumlah massa zatzat yang ada setelah reaksi

Percobaan ke Sebelum Setelah Perbandingan : pemanasan (g pemanasan (g Mg/MgO Mg) MgO) 1 2 0.62 0.48 1.02 0.79 0.61 0.60

0.36

0.60

0.60

Setiap senyawa tersusun dari unsur-unsur tertentu dengan perbandingan tetap

Tiap-tiap unsur kimia tersusun dari partikel-partikel kecil yang tidak bisa dihancurkan dan dibagi yang disebut atom. Selama perubahan kimia, atom tidak bisa diciptakan dan dimusnahkan. Semua atom dari suatu unsur mempunyai massa dan sifat yang sama, tetapi atom-atom dari suatu unsur berbeda dengan atom-atom dari unsur lain, baik masa maupun sifatsifatnya. Dalam senyawa kimia, atom-atom dari unsur yang berlainan melakukan ikatan dengan perbandingan numerik yang sama, exs. 1 atom A dengan 2 atom B (AB2)

2.1

16 X

8Y

8 X2 Y

Law of _________________________________

2.1

Adanya awan yang bermuatan positif dengan sejumlah elektron yang terpusat yang cukup untuk menetralkan. However, if there are electrons (-), there must be a + component.

2.2

(1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)

particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 107 m/s (~5% speed of light)

1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus 2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron 3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e- (1.67 x 10-24 g)
2.2

Sebagian besar masa dan semua muatan positif terpusat pada daerah yang sempit yang disebut inti atom (nuklei) Sebagian besar atom merupakan ruang kosong Besarnya muatan pada inti berbeda untuk atom yang berbeda, kira-kira setengah dari nilai numerik dari bobot atom suatu unsur Di luar inti suatu atom harus terdapat elektron yang jumlahnya sama dengan satuan muatan inti

Rutherfords Model of the Atom

atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m


2.2

H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p
mass He/mass H should = 2 measured mass He/mass H = 4

+ 9Be

1n

+ 12C + energy

neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0) n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10-24 g

2.2

Particle

Mass (g)

Charge (Coulombs)

Charge (units) -1 +1 0

Electron (e-) 9.1 x 10-28 -1.6 x 10-19 Proton (p) 1.67 x 10


-24

+1.6 x 10 0

-19

Neutron (n) 1.67 x 10-24

mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e-

2.2

Particle

Mass (g)

Charge (Coulombs)

Charge (units) -1 +1 0

Electron (e-) 9.1 x 10-28 -1.6 x 10-19 Proton (p) 1.67 x 10


-24

+1.6 x 10 0

-19

Neutron (n) 1.67 x 10-24

mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e-

2.2

_______________ (Z) = number of protons in nucleus ______________(A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons ___________ are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
Mass Number
Atomic Number

A ZX

Element Symbol

1 1H
235 92

2 1H

(D)
238 92

3 1H

(T)

U
2.3

2.3

Menentukan perbandingan muatan terhadap massa (e/m) dari ion positif yang dihasilkan dalam sebuah tabung sinar kanal Dalam gas neon biasa kira-kira 91% dari atom-atom mempunyai massa normal dan 9% dari atom-atom tersebut 22/20 lebih berat dari normal. KESIMPULAN Atom-atom dari unsur yang sama dapat sedikit berbeda dalam massanya

ISOTOP

Symbols

Find each of these: a) number of protons b) number of neutrons c) number of electrons d) Atomic number e) Mass Number

Cl name Chlorine atomic number 17 mass number 35.453


symbol

An ____ is formed when an atom, or group of atoms, has a net positive or negative charge (why?). _____ ion with a positive charge If a neutral atom _______ one or more electrons it becomes a cation.

Na

11 protons 11 electrons

Na+

11 protons 10 electrons

_____ ion with a negative charge If a neutral atom _______ one or more electrons it becomes an anion.

Cl

17 protons 17 electrons

Cl-

17 protons 18 electrons 2.5

Noble Gas Halogen

Group

Alkali Earth Metal Alkali Metal

Period

2.4

Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12C, 13C, and 14C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms. 12C 13C 14C
6 6 6

#p _______
#n_______ #e _______

_______
_______ _______

_______
_______ _______

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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12C

13C

14C

#p __6___ #n __6___ #e __6___

_ 6___ _ _7___ _ 6___

___6___ ___8___ ___6___

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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Na 22.99

Listed on the periodic table Gives the mass of average atom of each element compared to 12C Average atom based on all the isotopes

and their abundance %

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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Percent(%) abundance of isotopes Mass of each isotope of that element Weighted average =

mass isotope1(%) + mass isotope2(%) +


100 100

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Isotopes 24Mg =
25Mg 26Mg

Mass of Isotope 24.0 amu 25.0 amu 26.0 amu

Abundance 78.70% 10.13% 11.17%

= =

Atomic mass (average mass) Mg = 24.3 amu

Mg 24.3
LecturePLUS Timberlake

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Gallium is a metallic element found in small lasers used in compact disc players. In a sample of gallium, there is 60.2% of gallium-69 (68.9 amu) atoms and 39.8% of gallium-71 (70.9 amu) atoms. What is the atomic mass of gallium?

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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Ga-69

68.9 amu x

60.2
100

41.5 amu for

69Ga

Ga-71 (%/100)

70.9 amu x 39.8


100 Atomic mass Ga

28.2 amu for

71Ga

69.7 amu

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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A sample of boron consists of 10B (mass 10.0 amu) and 11B (mass 11.0 amu). If the average atomic mass of B is 10.8 amu, what is the % abundance of each boron isotope?

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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Assign X and Y values: X = % 10B Y = % 11B Determine Y in terms of X X + Y = 100 Y = 100 - X Solve for X: X (10.0) + (100 - X )(11.0) 100 100

= 10.8

Multiply through by 100 10.0 X + 1100 - 11.0X = 1080

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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Collect X terms 10.0 X - 11.0 X

1080 - 1100

- 1.0 X = -20
X = -20 - 1.0 = 20 %
10B

Y = 100 - X % 11B = 100 - 20% =

80% 11B

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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Copper has two isotopes 63Cu (62.9 amu) and 65Cu (64.9 amu). What is the % abundance of each isotope? (Hint: Check periodic table for atomic mass)

LecturePLUS Timberlake

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You can measure mass, or volume, or you can count pieces. We measure mass in grams. We measure volume in liters.

We count pieces in MOLES.

A counting unit Similar to a dozen, except instead of 12, its 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 6.02 X 1023 (in scientific notation) This number is named in honor of Amedeo Avogadro (1776 1856)

1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies 1 dozen cars = 12 cars 1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023 cars

1 dozen Al atoms = 12 Al atoms 1 mole of Al atoms = 6.02 X 1023 atoms

1 mole C
1 mole H2O

= 6.02 x 1023 C atoms


= 6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules

1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl molecules


(technically, ionics are compounds not molecules so they are called formula units)

6.02 x 1023 Na+ ions and 6.02 x 1023 Cl ions

Moles of elements 1 mol Mg = 6.02 x 1023 Mg atoms 1 mol Au = 6.02 x 1023 Au atoms Moles of compounds 1 mol NH3 = 6.02 x 1023 NH3 molecules 1 mol C9H8O4 = 6.02 x 1023 aspirin molecules

6.02 x 1023 particles 1 mole


or 1 mole 6.02 x 1023 particles
Note that a particle could be an atom OR a molecule!

1. Number of atoms in 0.500 mole of Al a) 500 Al atoms b) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms c) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms

2.Number of moles of S in 1.8 x 1024 S atoms a) 1.0 mole S atoms b) 3.0 mole S atoms c) 1.1 x 1048 mole S atoms

The Mass of 1 mole (in grams) Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass (get from periodic table) 1 mole of C atoms = 12.0 g

1 mole of Mg atoms
1 mole of Cu atoms

=
=

24.3 g
63.5 g

Some people used to call this a GFM (gram formula mass) when used with ionic compounds

Find the molar mass (usually we round to the tenths place)

A. 1 mole of Br atoms = B. 1 mole of Sn atoms =

79.9 g/mole 118.7 g/mole

Mass in grams of 1 mole equal numerically to the sum of the atomic masses
1 mole of CaCl2 = 111.1 g/mol = 111.1 g/mol CaCl2

1 mole Ca x 40.1 g/mol + 2 moles Cl x 35.5 g/mol


1 mole of N2O4

= 74.0 g/mol = 74.0 g/mol N2O4

2 moles N x 14.0 g/mol + 4 moles O x 16.0 g/mol

A.

Molar Mass of K2O = ? Grams/mole

B.

Molar Mass of antacid Al(OH)3 = ? Grams/mole

Prozac, C17H18F3NO, is a widely used antidepressant that inhibits the uptake of serotonin by the brain. Find its molar mass.

molar mass Grams Moles

Aluminum is often used for the structure of light-weight bicycle frames. How many grams of Al are in 3.00 moles of Al?
3.00 moles Al ? g Al

1. Molar mass of Al

1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al

2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0g Al 1 mol Al or 1 mol Al 27.0 g Al 27.0 g Al 1 mole Al = 81.0 g Al x

3. Setup 3.00 moles Al

Answer

The artificial sweetener aspartame (Nutra-Sweet) formula C14H18N2O5 is used to sweeten diet foods, coffee and soft drinks. How many moles of aspartame are present in 225 g of aspartame?

molar mass Grams

Avogadros number Moles particles

Everything must go through Moles!!!

How many atoms of Cu are present in 35.4 g of Cu?


35.4 g Cu 1 mol Cu 6.02 X 1023 atoms Cu 63.5 g Cu 1 mol Cu

= 3.4 X 1023 atoms Cu

How many atoms of K are present in 78.4 g of K?

What is the mass (in grams) of 1.20 X 1024 molecules of glucose (C6H12O6)?

How many atoms of O are present in 78.1 g of oxygen?

Penentuan persen komposisi:


1. Tentukan massa 1 mol suatu zat (massa molar) 2. Bagi masing-masing massa unsur dengan massa molarnya, kemudian kalikan 100%.

Total massa unsur dalam senyawa x 100% = % unsur


Massa molar senyawa

Tahap 1. Tentukan massa 1 mol senyawa (NH4)3PO4 3 12 1 4 mol atom N = 3 x 14,0 g mol atom H = 12 x 1,01 g mol atom P = 1 x 31,0 g mol atom O = 4 x 16,0g 1 mol (NH3)4 PO4 = 42,0 g = 12,1 g = 31,0 g = 64,0 g = 149,1g

N=

42,0 g N

x 100% = 28,2 %

149,1 g (NH4)3PO4 H= 12,1 g H x 100% = 8,1 % 149,1 g (NH4)3PO4

What is the percent carbon in C5H8NO4 (the glutamic acid used to make MSG monosodium glutamate), a compound used to flavor foods and tenderize meats? a) 8.22 %C b) 24.3 %C b) 41.1 %C

Rumus empiris Rumus yang memakai angka yang mudah dan bulat untuk menyatakan jumlah atom relatif dari tiap elemen yang ada dalam dalam satuan rumus (ex : H2O, CH2) Rumus Molekul Yang menyatakan jumlah yang pasti dari tiap macam atom yang terdapat dalam molekul (Ex : C2H4) Rumus Bangun

Suatu sampel dari gas yang bewarna coklat yang merupakan polutan utama udara ternyata mengandung 2,34 N dan 5,34 O. Bagaimana rumus paling sederhana dari senyawa ini ???