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Aryan Morita Biomedika KG

Low molecular weight microbial metabolites which can kill or inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria. Synthetic antimicrobial agents which may or may not be derived from microbial metabolites

Microorganism Bacillus colistinus B.subtilis Penicillium notatum Streptomyces sp S.erythreus S.griseus

Antimicrobial agent Colistin (polymyxin E) Bacitracin Penicillin G Spectinomycin, Tetracylines Erythromycin Streptomycin

BACTERICIDAL

Cause irreparable damage and bacterial cell death Binding irreversibly to target structure Inhibit growth of bacteria Allowing host immune defenses to eliminate infection

BACTERIOSTATIC

Narrow

Broad

Prevent cross-linking of peptdoglycan chain Penicillin & cephalosporine lactam ring Mode of action: involves binding to cell receptors (PBPs) inhibition of transpeptidation reaction inactivation of an inhibitor of autolytic enzym in the cell wall

Cell membrane disrupted macromolecules and ion escape from the cell cell damage and death

Attachment to a spesific receptor blocks normal activity of initiation complex of peptide formation mRNA missread break up polysome to monosome incapable to synthesis protein

Disruption of DNA structure Inhibition of DNA dependent RNA polymerase Interface with DNA gyrase Interface with DNA synthesis by blocking folic acid production

Mo produce enzym that destroy active drug Mo change their permeability to the drug

Mo develop an altered stuctural target for the drugs


Mo develop an altered metabolic pathway Mo develop an altered enzyme that can still perform metabolic function

Potency of an antibacterial agent in solution

Concentration in body fluids or tissue Susceptibility of a given mo to known concentrations of the drugs

pH

Component of medium

Stability of drug

Size of inoculum

Length of incubation

Metabolic activity of mo

Sulfonamides and related drugs Diaminopyrimidines trimetropin Quinolone ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, etc Beta lactam penicilin, cephalosphorine Tetracycline minocycline, doxycycline, etc

04/01/2014

Aryan Morita

Cont
Nitrobenzene derivates chloramphenicol Aminoglycosides stepromycine, gentamycin,etc Macrolide erythromycine, dll Polypeptide antibiotics polymyxin, bacitracin, dll Glycopeptides vancomycine

04/01/2014

Aryan Morita

Cont
Oxazolidinone linezoid Nitrofuran derivates furazolidone Nitroimidazole metronidazole Nicotinic acid derivates isoniasid Polyene antibiotics nystatine Azole derivates miconazole Others rifampin
Aryan Morita

04/01/2014

Kriteria Penggunaan antibiotik


Tepat indikasi Tepat penderita Tepat obat Tepat dosis, rute, waktu, dan lama pemberian Waspada efek samping

04/01/2014

Aryan Morita

Viruses Dosis yg tidak tepat Informasi yg Inadequate Tidak dilakukannya drainase ketika operasi

Penggunaan yg tidak tepat

04/01/2014

Aryan Morita

Identifikasi MO Menggunakan obat yg sensitif thd MO Pertimbangkan host factors


Seleksi antimikroorganisme

tempat tjdnya infeksi Sistem pertahanan inang allergies, Ketidakmampuan dari drug of choice untuk menembus tempat infeksi Kerentanan pasien thd tjdnya toksisitas

04/01/2014

Aryan Morita

To give prompt treatment in desperately ill patients suspected serious microbial infection To delay the emergence of microbial mutants resistant To treat mixed infection To achieve bactericidal synergism or to provide bacterial action

synergism

antagonism