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BIOLOGY FGS 0044

MR. KHAIRUL HAFEZAD BIN ABDULLAH

CENTRE FOR FOUNDATION STUDIES MANAGEMENT AND SCIENCE UNIVERSITY

Cell Theory (History)

1665

1838

1839

- Robert Hooke first described and name cellulae. - Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovered singlecelled organisms, called it as animalcules. - Matthias Schleiden make a conclusion that cell as a units of life. - developed the first statement of cell theory all plants are aggregates of fully individualized, independent, separate beings, namely cells themselves. - Theodor Schwann reported that animal tissues also consist of individual cells.

Cell theory (Ideas)


1. All living things consists of cells 2. All cells come from other cells. 3. Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms. 4. The ability of cells to divide to form new cells is the basis for all reproduction and for the growth and repair of multicellular organisms. 5. All cells are enclosed by membrane. 6. Every cells, at some stage, in its life contains DNA. 7. Two major kind of cells are prokaryote and eukaryote.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells


Prokaryotic : o a type of cell lacking a membrane bound nucleus and other membrane o found only in bacteria and cyanobacteria
Eukaryotic : o a type of cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus, membrane organelles and chromosomes in which the DNA is associated with proteins.

Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells


Characteristics
Group of organisms where such cells are found Range of size

Prokaryotic cells
Bacteria and cyanobacteria

Eukaryotic cells
Algae, fungi, protozoa, plants and animals Usually larger cells, 10-100um in diameter Present

Usually extremely small, 0.510um in diameter Present

Plasma membrane

Microtubules & microfilaments Chromosomes

None, except in certain spirochetes No chromosomes, only a single ring-shaped circular DNA molecule;

Present

Linear DNA associated with protein histone; usually exists in pairs in somatic cells.

Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells


Characteristics
Nucleolus Nucleus

Prokaryotic cells
None No distinct nucleus

Eukaryotic cells
Present A distinct membrane-bound nucleus Mitosis and/ or meiosis occurs

Nuclear division

No mitosis @ meiosis occurs

Membrane-bound organelles

Usually none. If present, very simple

Many organelles, bound by double & single membrane

Photosynthesis apparatus

Chlorophyll (if present) is not contained in chloroplast

Chlorophyll (if present) is contained in chloroplast

Chapter 1: Cell structures and organelles

Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells


Characteristics
Ribosomes Centrioles

Prokaryotic cells
Protein synthesized in small ribosomes None

Eukaryotic cells
Protein synthesized in large ribosomes Present in animal cells

Flagella

Flagella (if present) lack internal 9+2 fibril arrangement Present, contain mucopeptides (peptidoglycan)

Flagella have 9+2 internal fibril arrangement Present in plants and fungi, contains cellulose

Cell wall

Capsule

Present in some prokaryotic cells None

BIOLOGY (SGSF 0044)

CENTRE FOR FOUNDATION STUDIES

Cell Ultrastructure
Cell is visualized as a tiny three-dimensional sac consisting of three main parts: i. Cell membrane (and cell wall if it is a plant cell) ii. Cytoplasm (inclusive of cytosol and membranous organelles suspended in it). iii. Nucleus Cell membrane (and cell wall in the plant cell) is the outer layer of the cell. Cytoplasm- jelly-like substance contained within the plasma membrane. Nucleus the most prominent structure in the cell.

Cell ultrastructure
made-up of two parts: cytosol (cytoplasmic solution) and cell organelles. cytosol - semi-fluid portion of the cytoplasm (cooloidal solution). most of proteins in cytosol exhibit properties of enzymes. cell organelles carry out specific functions within the cell. all cell organelles, apart from nucleus part of cytoplasm. organelles such as nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids and Golgi apparatus: membranous organelles. Other organelles such as ribosomes and centrioles: nonmembranous organelles.

Activity 1

Draw a typical structure of Plant and Animal Cells. You must label your diagram.

Compare and Contrast Plant cells & Animal Cells:


Rectangle shaped
Cell Wall Plant Cells Chloroplast Nucleus & Nuclear Membrane Cell Membrane Animal Cells *Centrioles & Lysosomes Small Vacuoles or NONE.

Round shaped

Cytoplasm

LARGE vacuoles

Cell Wall

most bacteria encased by strong cell wall composed of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate)- only for prokaryotic plants, fungi, protists also have cell wall but made from different materials (cellulose or chitin). based on their cell walls, bacteria can be classify as a) Gram-positive - thick, single layered cell wall (produced purple color after staining). b) Gram-negative- multilayered cell wall (exhibit red color after staining). functions: i. protects the cell ii. maintain shape iii. prevent excessive uptake of water

Cell wall

disease causing bacteria secrete jellylike protective capsule of polysaccharide around the cell. some bacteria have flagellum/flagella (long, threadlike structures attached to the surface of cell for locomotion and feeding). eukaryotic cells are more complicated, all organelles are in compartment. plant cells have large membrane-bounded sac called central vacuole (stores proteins, pigments, waste materials). animal & plant cell contains vesicles (stores and transport a variety of materials). inside nucleus, DNA is in packaged called chromosomes. all eukaryotic cells supported by cytoskeleton.

Cell membrane
Fluid Mosaic Model - composed of lipids and globular protein - biologists thought the protein covered the inner and outer surfaces of the phospholipids bilayer like a coat of paint - 1935, Davson-Danielli model suggested that membrane as a sandwich; phospholipids bilayer between two layers of globular protein. - this theory was not logic because membrane proteins are not very soluble in water. - 1972, S. Singer & G. Nicolson proposed a new simple model; the globular proteins are inserted into the lipid bilayer.

Cell membrane
Fluid Mosaic Model

Cell membrane
Fluid Mosaic Model - phospholipid bilayer a. contain tryglyseride b. move literally in a membrane c. hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids are in contact with water d. hydrophobic tails are in contact with each other and remote from water - protein mosaic a. mixed with lipid bilayer b. there are 2 major populations of membrane proteins

Cell membrane
c. integral proteins penetrate far enough into the membrane for their hydrophobic regions to surrounded by the hydrocarbon tails of lipids d. peripheral proteins are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all; they are appendages attached to the surface of the membrane
- cholesterol a. wedged between phospholipid molecules in the plasma membranes of animals, help stabilize membrane stability.

Cell membrane
Components of cell membrane
Component Phospholipid membrane Transmembrane proteins Composition Phospholipid molecules Carriers Function Provides permeability barrier, matrix for protein Active and passive transport of molecules across membranes

Channels
Receptors

Passively transport molecules across membrane


Transmit information into cell. Determine shape of cell Anchor certain proteins to specific sites self- recognition Tissue recognition

Interior protein network Cell surface markers

Spectrins Clathrins Glycoproteins Glycolipid

Cell nucleus
The cell nucleus is the brain of eukaryotic cells and a remarkable organelle because it forms the package for our genes and their controlling factors. It functions to: Store genes on chromosomes Organize genes into chromosomes to allow cell division. Transport regulatory factors & gene products via nuclear pores Produce messages (messenger Ribonucleic acid or mRNA) that code for proteins Produce ribosomes in the nucleolus Organize the uncoiling of DNA to replicate key genes

Cell nucleus

METHODS OF RESEARCH

MICROSCOPE

LIGHT MICROSCOPE

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

Use light that is focused in specimen


Light is focused by glass condenser Ability to differentiate for two close object : resolution Resolution for light microscope :0.2-0.25 m Magnifying power : 100-1500 x

Use beam of electrons instead of light


specimen must be ultrathin Two kind of electron microscope; a) Transmission electron microscope (TEM) b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

For specimen : must be very thin layer, dehydrate and coloured

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) The electrons used to visualize the specimens are transmitted through material

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

capable of resolving objects only 0.2 nanometer apart ( just twice the diameter of hydrogen atom )

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) SEM beams the electrons onto the surface of the specimen from a fine probe that passes rapidly back and forth. Image can be viewed and photograph

SPECIMEN PROCESSING FOR ELECTRON MICROSCOPE Fixing in osmic acid

Dehydrated and placed in embedding agent

Cut (ultrathin) using microtome

Sections floated on water and taken up by touching then with copper grid

Sections are bombarded with heavy metal ions such as gold, platinum, lead, to produce better contrast

CENTRIFUGATION
Dividing the cell into its parts (or fractions) is called cell fractionation and is achieved by the process of centrifugation using a centrifuge. A centrifuge is a device which can spin tubes contain liquid suspensions at a very high speed.

The effect is to exert a force on the contents of the tube similar to, but much greated that of gravity
Different cell organelles have different weights ; this allow them to be separated into cell fractions by centrifugating the suspension at different speeds and different lengths of time

CHROMATOGRAPHY
Use to separate tiny quantities of components of mixtures in very small samples , and then to identify them or use the isolated components for further investigations. Ideal to separate amino acids, proteins, and photosynthetic pigments The mixture carried by a chromatography solvent (mobile phase) is made to flow through a porous chromatography medium (stationary phase) which restricts the movement of molecules Molecular size, solubility and adhesion effects the speeds of the molecules to pass through the medium

TISSUE
- covers outside of the body

- lines organ and cavities within the body


- the cells a riveted together by tight junction - this tight packing enables the epithelium to function as a barrier protecting against mechanical

Epithelium tissue
- a group of cells with a common structure and function. Different types of tissues have different structures that are especially suited to their function - 4 main categories: epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissue.

Epithelium tissue
- a group of cells with a common structure and function. Different types of tissues have different structures that are especially suited to their function
- 4 main categories: epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissue.

- 2 criteria for classifying epithelia: i. the number of cell layers ii. shape of cells on the free surface

Epithelium tissue
i) Number of cell layers
- simple - stratified single layers of cells multiple layers of cells

- pseudo stratified single layered, but appears multiple because the cell vary in length

Epithelium tissue

Epithelium tissue
- the structure of epithelial tissue fits its function
1. Simple squamus - thin and leaky f(x) - exchange of materials by diffusion where??- blood vessels, air sacs of lungs

Epithelium tissue
2. stratified squamus regenerate rapidly. The new cells are pushed to the free surface as replacement for cell that are continually slough off f(x) - change new cells where?? - surfaces subject to abrasion, such as the outer skin and lining of the esophagus, anus and vagina

Epithelium tissue
3. columnar - having cells with relatively large cytoplasmic volume f(x) - secretion or active absorption of substance is an important function where?? intestines simple columnar nasal passages pseudostratified ciliated columnar inner surfaces of urinary bladder stratified columnar

Epithelium tissue
4. Cuboidal
f(x) where??

- specialized for secretion


- secretion - kidneys tubules, many glands, (thyroid, salivary)

Connective tissue
f(x): to bind and support other tissues
- have a sparse population of cells scattered through and extracellular matrix

- the matrix generally consists of a web of fibers embedded in a uniform foundation that may be liquid, jellylike or solid - Three kind of connective tissue fibers made of protein: collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers

Connective tissue
i. Collagenous fibers
- made of collagen most abundant protein - non-elastic do not tear easily when pulled ii. Elastic fibers - long threads made of a protein called elastin

- provide a rubbery quality that complements the non-elastic strength of collagenous fibers

Connective tissue
iii. Reticular fibers
- very thin and branched - compose of collagen - continuous with collagenous fibers - form a tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues

Connective tissue
the major types of connective tissue in vertebrate
loose connective tissue adipose tissue

fibrous connective tissue


cartilage

bone
blood

Connective tissue
i. loose connective tissue - the most widespread connective tissue - binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organ in place - has all three types of fiber: collagenous, elastic and reticular - two types of cell predominates: the fibroblasts and macrophage

Connective tissue
fibroblasts
macrophage

: secrete the protein ingredient of extracellular fibers


: engulfing bacteria and the debris of dead cells by phagocytosis

Connective tissue
ii. adipose tissue

- specialized form of loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells distributed throughout its matrix f(x): pads and insulate the body and stores fuel molecules
- heredity, exercise and the amount of fat we eat can affect the amount of fat our adipose cell stored

Connective tissue
iii. fibrous connective tissue - is dense due to its large numbers of collagenous fibers - the fibers are, organized into parallel bundles, an arrangement that maximizes non-elastic strength - can be found in tendon and ligaments tendon ligament : attach muscle to bone : join bones together at joints

Connective tissue
iv. Cartilage

- has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of a substance called chondroitin sulfate (a protein carbohydrate complex)
- strong yet flexible support material eg.: shark skeletons, nose, ears, ring of windpipes, caps on the end of some bones

Connective tissue
v. bone - a mineralized connective tissue - bone forming cell is called osteoblast - osteoblast deposit a matrix of collagen, but they also release Ca2+, Mg and phosphate ion, which chemically combine and harden within the matrix into the mineral hydroxyapatite

Connective tissue
vi. blood - although different from other connective tissue, but it does have an extensive extracellular matrix - the matrix called plasma, consist of water, salt and dissolved protein - two types of blood cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes - cell fragments: platlet

Nervous tissue
- senses stimuli and transmits signal from one part of the animal to another - functional unit: neuron (nerve cell) - f(x): transmit signal called nerve impulses

- Consists of cell body and two or more extension called dendrits and axon
dendrits : transmit impulses from their tips toward the rest of the neuron axon : transmit impulses toward another neuron or toward and effectors

Muscle tissue
- composed of muscle fibers that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulse
- In muscle fibers: large number of microfilament made of the contractile proteins action and myosin - 3 types: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle

Muscle tissue
skeletal : for voluntary movement of the body
cardiac : branched contractile wall of the heart smooth : lacks striation, in the wall of digestive tract, bladder, arteries and other internal organ for involuntary body activities

Activity 2
Construct a mind-map to simplify all the information of four major type of tissues.