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A steam turbine is a prime mover that derives its energy of rotation due to conversion of the heat energy of steam into kinetic energy as it expands through a series of nozzles mounted on the casing or produced by the fixed blades.

Important aspects for Steam Turbine functioning

Steam at high temperature and pressure contains the potential energy. Potential energy of the steam is converted into a mechanical work through expansion in a nozzle and impact and/or reaction with a blade. echanical !ork of many sets of blades attached to a shaft produces rotational power.

The use of Steam Turbines for : * Power "eneration in Power Plants#

* * $rives for critical %entrifugal/Axial %ompressors in &efineries# 'ertilizers ( Petrochemicals $rive units for pumps# fans

Advantages commonl attributed to Steam Turbines are:

* * * 'lexibility to use multiple inlet and exhaust pressure# )nherent variable speed operation *peration independent of electric power supply

Turbine Inventions

Turbine !peration: !ater is converted to steam by application of heat in the

boiler# which makes the steam at specified pressure and temperature. +o convert the steam,s energy into work# it must go through a thermodynamic cycle that combines expansion compression# heat input# and heat re-ection. +he most efficient thermodynamic cycle for an ideal fluid is %arnot cycle. )t consists of an isothermal heat input# isentropic expansion# isothermal heat re-ection# and an isentropic compression.

%A&.*+ %/%01
" to #: Isentropic e$pansion # to %: Isothermal heat re&ection % to ': Isentropic compression ' to ": Isothermal heat suppl

" to #: Isentropic e$pansion (Steam turbine) # to %: Isobaric heat re&ection (*ondenser) % to ': Isentropic compression (+ump) ' to ": Isobaric heat suppl (Boiler)

" to #: Isentropic e$pansion (Steam turbine) # to %: Isobaric heat re&ection (*ondenser) % to ': Isentropic compression (+ump) ' to ": Isobaric heat suppl (Boiler)

Turbine *lassification
A, B the action of steam: )mpulse &eaction )mpulse and reaction combined B, B the number of step reductions involved: Single stage ulti2stage !hether there is one or more revolving vanes separated by stationary reversing vanes.

*, B the direction of steam flo-: Axial &adial ixed +angential 3elical &eentry ., B the inlet steam pressure: 3igh Pressure edium pressure 0ow pressure

E, B the final pressure %ondensing .on2condensing /, B the source of steam: 1xtraction

Impulse Stage: )mpulse nozzles organise the steam so it flows in well2formed high2speed -ets. oving blades# also called buckets# absorb the -et,s kinetic energy and convert it to shaft rotation.

Reaction T pe: steam enters the fixed blade passages and leaves as steam -et that fills the entire rotor periphery. Steam flows between moving blades that in2turn# form moving nozzles. +here it drops in pressure# and its speed rises relative to that of blades.

Bac01pressure T pe: +he turbine normally operates

against a constant back2pressure. +he turbine exhaust steam is supplied to the process and the electric output is dependent on the demand for the process steam.

Bac0 pressure turbines -ith uncontrolled e$traction: +his type with uncontrolled extractions is
particularly suitable when two steam systems operating at different pressures are to be supplied and the extraction flow is less than the exhaust flow.

*ondensing Turbine:
Straight2condensing turbines are advantageous# especially when large 4uantities of a reliable power source are re4uired or an inexpensive fuel# such as process by2product gas# is readily available.

E$traction 1*ondensing Turbine:

1xtraction2condensing turbines generate both process steam and stable electric power. Process steam# at one or more fixed pressures# can be automatically extracted as needed.



5!6ERN!R A*TUAT!R 7 *!NTR!3 6A36E

Emergenc Stop 6alve:

+he 1S8 is the main shut of provision between the steam inlet and the turbine. +he 1S8 can cut off the steam supply in a minimum time

!verspeed Trip:
+he *S+ is a mechanical device# which shuts down the turbine in the vent of overspeed. )t initiates trip if speed exceeds an admissible limit more than 567.

Turbine 8ournal Bearing:

+he function of the -ournal bearings is * to support the turbine rotor centrally in the outer casing and its guide blade carriers. * to carry a load perpendicular to the axis of rotation made up of the weight of the rotor# constant or fluctuating steam forces and kinetic forces caused by the unstable running or any residual unbalance.

Turbine Thrust Bearing:

+he function of the +hrust bearing is9 * +o keep the rotor in exact position in the casing * +o absorb any axial thrust on the rotor

+o control turbine load automatically speed governor takes care to measure shaft speed and ad-ust governor valve openings to pass the re4uired steam flow# in turns# maintain speed within the governors regulating range. +urbine speed will remain constant as long as shaft load# governing valve openings are unchanged and steam conditions remain steady. :ut when shaft load decreases with constant governing valve opening# the turbine speed increases because it is getting too much steam. +o bring shaft speed to normal# governing valve must throttle steam flow to match the new load.

T pes of 5overnor:
*onstruction -ise: * echanical "overnor9 Simple flyweight arrangement * echanical ; 3ydraulic "overnor <sing the principle of flyweight ( hydraulic amplification * 1lectronic "overnor icroprocessor based controls /unction -ise: * %onstant Speed "overnor * 8ariable Speed "overnor

5overning S stem

Turbine .ata Sheet

!peration 5uidelines:
+o ensure the trouble free operation# the turbine must be9 * *perate as per specified operating parameters * aintain Proper lubrication * Protective devices in line( functioning * *perate as per S*P * &egularly inspect/maintain as per 8endor guidelines * +urbine steam 4uality to be ensured for trouble2free operation. +he build up of deposits in turbine due to impurities in the steam can cause both thermodynamic and mechanical problem which can lead to blade failure.

3ube oil s stem

Turbine Start1up *urve

Turbine Monitoring:
+he principal criteria of monitoring# which can indicate a dangerous condition during normal operation are as follows9 * * * * * *il and :earing +emperatures :earing housing and Shaft vibrations Shaft axial displacement Steam Parameters like *il =uality

Steam +arameters Monitoring

A,Temperature +he satisfactory functioning and life of the various components of the turbine are to a large extent dependant on the absolute main steam temperatures and temperatures fluctuations. %onse4uences of exceeding the permitted tolerances are9 * A shortening of the life the affected components. * A build up scale in guiding and sealing devices. * Permanent distortion of housing and casings. * +emporary or permanent changes in radial clearances.

B, Inlet Steam +ressure Monitoring: +he ob-ective of )nlet Steam Pressure monitoring9 * aintain the inlet steam pressure within the permitted tolerance. * >eep the initial steam pressure as constant as possible during steady state operation. * atch the initial steam pressure to the re4uirement of power output. * aintain the pressure and changes during start2up as far as possible in accordance with the actual casing temperatures.

*, 9heel *hamber pressure Monitoring: !heel %hamber pressure monitoring is a good indication of rotor condition. As these pressure is direct function of steam mass flow. )f the measurement indicates higher values at constant mass flow then it is an indication of deterioration of turbine operation. All operating conditions need to be checked.