Anda di halaman 1dari 14


Detecting radiation in the infrared range electromagnetic radiation (roughly 9,00014,000

nanometers) and produce images of that radiation. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermal

imaging allows one to see variations in temperature.

In thermal imaging warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; humans and other warm blooded animals become easily visible against the environment, day or night.


The pyroelectric effect, whereby a change in temperature in a material engenders a release of electric charge, has been known as a physically observable phenomenon for many centuries. The effect occurs in any material (single crystal, ceramic or polymer) which possesses a polar point symmetry. Thus, of the 32 possible point group symmetries, there are 10 for which the materials possessing them are pyroelectric.

Pyroelectricity is the property presented by certain materials that exhibit an electric polarization P when a temperature variation T is applied uniformly: P = T where is the pyroelectric coefficient at constant stress. Pyroelectric crystals actually have ,a spontaneous polarization, but the pyroelectric effect can only be observed during a temperature change.

If a pyroelectric crystal with an intrinsic dipole moment (top) is fashioned into a circuit with
electrodes attached on each surface (FIG. 1), an increase in temperature T prompts the spontaneous polarization PS to decrease as the dipole moments, on average, diminish in magnitude. The horizontal tilting of the dipoles, (pictured at bottom of FIG. 1), signifies the effect. A current flows to compensate for the change in bound charge that accumulates on the crystal edges.

[3] FIG. 1

Schematic drawing showing the origin of the pyroelectric current.


In the microscopic scale, the pyroelectric effect occurs because of the asymmetric interaction potential caused by electrically charged atoms within the crystal structure of the material.

This can be viewed schematically as presented in FIG. 2, which shows a two dimensional lattice of cations and anions. The cations are displaced relative to the unit cells centre to give rise to an electrical dipole moment (or spontaneous polarization PS along the line (x1 x2).

FIG. 2 Schematic two-dimensional presentation of pyroelectricity


The potential energy of any cat ion along this line will be an asymmetric form as illustrated in
FIG. 3. Any excitation caused by an increase in lattice temperature will make it change its quantised energy level (E1 to En) within the well, and lead to a change in its mean equilibrium

position in the lattice along the line A-B in FIG. 3.

This gives a change in the overall electrical dipole moment, which appears as the macroscopic pyroelectric effect.


FIG. 3

Potential energy of cation in lattice of FIG. 3 along the line x1-x2, E1 to En represent the quantised energy levels for the cation and the locus A-B is the change in its equilibrium position with change in energy.


Poly vinylsidene fluoride: The PVDF molecules have a repeat unit of (-CH2-CF2-) in which the carbon-hydrogen and the electrically polar carbon-fluorine bonds can take up a number of stable configurations determined by the polymer's treatment. The two most important are shown in figure Structure of PVDF molecular and unit cell forms: (a) and (c) alpha-phase; (b) and (d) beta-phase.

If the alpha-phase(a) is stretched and electrically poled,

the beta-phase forms in which the molecular groups are in an all-trans configuration (c) and the molecules are assembled to give a polar unit cell(d). This form of PVDF is also pyroelectric.

Barium Titanate:


(a) (a) Cubic crystal structure of BaTio3 (b) Cubic structure above 130 c (c) Tetragonal structure below 130 c



Above 130 c the Barium Titanate is not ferroelectric and hence the there is no polarization. Below 130 c the crystal is polarized due to separation of center of masses of positive and negative charges.

Pyro electricity in Barium Titanate:

The Barium Titanate is said to be pyroelectric because when the temperature increases the crystal expands and the relative distance of ions change. The Ti 4+ shifts with change in temperature which results in change in polarization.



must be monitored.

Counting People:

There are many situations where numbers of people entering, leaving, or passing through an area

Most notably, this is the case in retail outlets and shopping malls, where retailers desire to monitor the conversion rates of people entering their premises leading to sales actually made.

Where the white spots are the humans and their operations can be spotted out and they can be identified by their gestures.


The future of array design is moving in the direction of designing arrays with sufficient numbers of elements for imaging and detection, but with reduced pitch and reduced silicon area.

In this way, it is possible to build pyroelectric arrays which can be assembled in small, industrystandard leadless packages, enabling high-volume production throughput and cost reductions of well over 50%.
In this way, the mass market for intelligent detection and thermal imaging can be properly addressed. In thermal imaging, the challenge is to produce robust and useable imagers with adequate features at a price that is acceptable for inclusion in the average tool box. Work is progressing to design cost-effective imagers using new pyroelectric array designs.

The use of image fusion (visible with thermal) is one of the keys to meeting this challenge.

[1]Pyroelectric devices and materials,R W Whatmore,Plessey Research (Caswell) Limited, Allen Clark Research Centre, Caswell, Towcester, Northants, UK. [2]Principles of electronic materials and devices third edition, S.O.kasap. [3] Pyroelectricity-group of dielectric physics-Professor Ryszard Poprawski. [4] Applications of Pyroelectric Materials in Array-Based Detectors,Anthony J. Holden, Member, IEEE.