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# 1. You are steaming on a course of 133T at 16 knots. At 2216Hrs. you observe lighthouse bearing 086T. At 2223Hrs.

the lighthouse bears 054T. What is your distance off the second bearing?

Ans.

2.6 miles

1. Solution:

A 2216 Hrs.

## C Ltho Find: Dist. At 2nd Brg.

2223 Hrs. B

Co. = 133 Co. = 133 nd Brg. = 054( - ) st 2 1 Brg. = 086 (-) <b = 79 < a = 47 < a = 47 ( ) st Time of 1 Brg.= 2216 ( b a ) = 32 nd Time of 2 Brg =2223 Steaming Time = 7 mins. BC = AB x Sin < a Sin ( b a ) AB = Speed x Time / 60 = 1.87 x Sin 47 = 16 x 7 Sin 32 60 BC = 2.58 nm AB = 1.87 nm

2. You are steaming on a course of 071T at 19 knots. At 1907Hrs. you observe a lighthouse bearing 122T. At 1915Hrs. the lighthouse bears 154T. What is your distance off the second bearing?
Ans. 3.7 miles

2. Solution:
1915 Hrs. 1907 Hrs. A

## Find: Dist at 2nd Brg.

Lighthouse

Co. = 071 Co. = 071 1st Brg. = 122 2nd Brg = 154 ( - ) < a = 51 < b = 83 < a = 51 ( - ) Time of 1st Brg.= 1915 Time of 2nd Brg =1923 ( b - a ) = 32 Steaming Time = 8 mins.

BC = AB x Sin < a AB = Speed x Time/ 60 Sin ( b a ) = 19 x 8 = 2.53 x Sin 51 Sin 32 60 BC = 3.71 nm AB = 2.53 nm

3.You are steaming on a course 168T at a speed of 18 knots. At 1426Hrs. you sight a buoy bearing 144T. At 1435Hrs. you sight the same buoy bearing 116T. What is your distance off at the second bearing and predicted distance when abeam? Ans. 2.3 miles 2nd bearing, 1.8 miles abeam

3. Solution:
A
1426 Hrs

1435 Hrs. B C

Buoy
Find: Dist. At 2nd D Bearing and Predicted Dist. when Abeam

## Co. = 168 1st Brg. = 144 ( - ) < a = 24

Time of 1st Brg. = 1426 BC = AB x Sin a Time of 2nd Brg.= 1435 Sin (b a ) = 2.7 x Sin 24 Steaming Time = 9 mins. Sin 28 AB = Spd x Time / 60 BC = 2.33 nm AB = 18 x 9 CD = BC x Sin < b = 2.33 x Sin 52 60 CD = 1.83 (Dist Abeam) AB = 2.7 nm

## Co. 2nd Brg. < b < a (ba)

= 168 = 116 ( - ) = 52 = 24 = 28

4. You are going from a point in ZD( -2) to a point in (ZD +4) over a distance of 6,589 miles at a speed of 25.0 knots Zone time of departure is 0536Hrs. on November 21, 2001. What is the ETA and date of arrival? Ans. 2310 Hrs., December 1

4. Solution: Steaming Time = Distance / Speed = 6,589 nm / 25 knots = 263.56 / 24 Steaming Time = 10d 23h 34m Dep ZT S.T. E.T.A. T/ Diff. E.T.A. = = = = = 0536 21 Nov. 2334 10 days 0510 02 Dec. 06 ( - ) 2310 01 Dec.

5.You are on a voyage from Limon, Costa Rica, to Los Angeles, U.S.A. The distance from pilot to pilot is 3,150 miles. The speed of advance is 14.0 knots. You estimate 24.0 hours for bunkering at Colon, and 12.0 hours for the Panama Canal transit. If you take departure at 1836 hours (ZD+6), on 28 January. What is your ETA (ZD+8) at Los Angeles?
Ans. 1336 Hrs., 8 February

5. Solution: Dep Time = 1836 28 Jan. ST S.T. = 0900 09 days E.T. A. = 0336 07 Feb. ST T/Diff. = 02 ( - ) E.T.A. = 0136 07 Feb. Bunkering = 2400 ( + ) E.T.A. = 0136 08 Feb. Transit = 1200 ( + ) E.T.A L.A = 1336 08 Feb.

## = Dist / Speed = 3150 / 14 = 225 / 24 = 09d 09h 00m

6. A ship is at DR longitude 6725 W at 1815 ZT steaming on a westerly course when the navigator informs the Captain that the ship is about to enter a new time zone. The Captain orders that the ships clocks be set to the new zone time when the next hour is struck. What will be the new zone description, and what will be the zone time by ships clock immediately on being set to new zone time? Ans. New ZD (+5); New ZT 1800

67 30W

67 25 W

1815 ZT

ZD + 5

ZD + 4

7. A vessel at Lat. 32 14.7 N, Long. 066 28.9 W heads for a destination at Lat. 36 58.7 N, Long. 075 42.2 W. Determine the true course and distance by the mercator sailing?

Ans.

## 7. Solution: MP1 = 2033.31 MP2 = 2376.99 ( - ) Lat1= 32 14.7N

DMP = 343.68 Lat2= 36 58.7N Tan Co. = Dlo / DMP Dlat = 04 44N = 553.3 / 343.68 x 60 = 1.60992 inv Tan Co. = N 58.15 W Dlat = 284 - 360 Long1 = 066 28.9 W T/Co. = 301.8 Long2 = 075 42.2 W Dlo = 9 13.3 W Dist. = Dlat / Cos. Co. x 60 = 284 / Cos 58.15 Dlo = 553.3 Dist = 538.2 nm

## Meridional Parts = Lat. / 2 + 45 = Tan log x 7915.7 Lat Sin x 23.3

8. You departed Lat. 1854 N, Long. 073 00 E and steamed 1,150 miles on course 253T. What are the latitude and longitude of arrival by mercators sailing?

## Ans. Lat. 1318 N, Long. 053 03 E

8. Solution: Dlat =Dist x Cos. Co. =1150 x Cos 73 Dlo = DMP x Tan Co. = 366.07 x Tan 73 Dlat = 336.22 / 60 = 1197.36 / 60 Dlat = 5 36.2 S Dlo = 19 57.3 W Lat1 = 18 54 N Long1= 73 00 E ( - ) Lat2 = 13 17.8 N Long2 = 53 02.7 E MP1 = 1147.59 MP2 = 781.52 ( - ) DMP = 366.07

9. Your vessel receives a distress call from a vessel reporting her position as LAT 35 01.0 S, LONG 18 51.0 W. Your position is LAT 35 01.0 S, LONG 21 42.0 W. Determine the true course and distance from your vessel to the vessel in distress by parallel sailing.
Ans. 090 T, 140.0 miles

9. Solution: Long1 = 18 51 W Long2 = 21 42 W Dlo = 2 51 W x 60 Dlo = 171 Dist = Dlo x Cos Lat. = 171 x Cos 35 01 Dist = 140 nm Course = 090

10. A vessel at Lat. 2000 N, Long. 10730 W is proceeding to Lat. 2440 N, Long. 11230 W. What is the course and distance by mid-latitude sailing? Ans. 315.4 T, 394.2 nm

10. Solution: Mlat = Lat1 + Lat2 / 2 Lat1 = 20 00 N = (20 + 24 40 ) / 2 Lat2 = 24 40 N( - ) = 44 40 /2 Dlat = 4 40 N Mlat = 22 20 x 60 Dep. = Dlo x Cos Mlat Dlat = 280 (N) = 300 x Cos 22 20 Long1 = 107 30 W Dep. = 277.50 ( W ) Long2 =112 30 W( - ) Dlo = 5 00 W x 60 Dlo = 300 ( W )

DIST

COURSE

## 394.2 Inv. X-Y 44.74

11. A vessel steams 666 miles on the course 295T from Lat. 24 24 N, Long. 08300 W. What are the latitude and longitude of the point of arrival by midlatitude sailing?

## Ans. Lat. 29 05.5 N, Long. 094 15 W

11. Solution: Dist. Course Dlat. Dep. 666 Inv P - R 295 = 281.46 Inv x - y 603.6 Dlat = 281.46 / 60 = 4 41.45 N Lat1 = 24 24 N Dlat = 4 41.45 N Lat2 = 29 05.45 N Mlat = Lat1 + Lat2 / 2 = 24 24 + 29 05.45 / 2 Mlat = 53 29.45 / 2 Mlat = 26 44.7 N

Dlo = Dep / Cos Mlat = 603.6 / Cos 26 44.7 N Dlo = 675.9 / 60 Dlo = 11 15.1 W Long1 = 83 00 W Long2 = 94 15.1 W

12. The great circle distance from LAT 08 50.0 N, LONG 080 21.0 W to LAT 12 36 N, LONG 128 16 E is 8,664 miles and the initial course is 306.6 T. Determine the latitude of the vertex.

Ans. 37 30.3 N

12. Solution: Cos Lat V = Cos Lat1 x Sin I.C. = Cos 8 50 N x Sin 53.4 = 0.793295 inv. Cos Lat V = 37 30.3N NOTE: The name of the latitude of vertex is taken from the name of latitude of departure.

13 .On March 12, the LMT of meridian transit is 1210H. What will be your zone time of meridian transit if you are on Longitude 50 20 E? Ans. 11h 48m 40s ZT

13. Solution: Long. = 50 20 E CM = 45 00 E ( Central Meridian ) Diff = 5 20 x 4 T/ Diff. = 21m 20s LMT M.P. =12h 10m 00s ( - ) ZT M. P. = 11h 48m 40s

CM CM CM CM

RULES FOR ZONE TIME > < > < Long and named East Long and named East Long and named West Long and named West (+) (-) (-) (+)

14. The local mean time of sunrise at Lat. 20 20 S, Long. 35 40 E is 0857H. Find the corresponding zone time of sunrise? Ans. 08h 34m 20s

14. Solution: Long = 35 40 E CM = 30 00 E ( - ) Diff = 5 40 x 4 T/Diff = 22m 40s LMT = 08h 57m 00s ( - ) Z.T. = 08h 34m 20s

15. The GMT of LAN was found to be 22h 36m 24s. From the daily pages of the Nautical Almanac, the GHA of the sun at 22h indicates 153 48.5. Find the corresponding increments for 36m 24s? Ans. 9 06

## 15. Solution: 36m 24s 4 9 06

16. The GHA of the sun at 1200 GMT was found in the Nautical almanac to be 358 28.4. What is the Equation of time? Ans. 6m 06s

16. Solution: GHA = 358 28.4 CM = 360 00.0 ( - ) Diff = 1 31.6 x 4 Eq. of Time = 06m 06.2s

17. The GHA of the sun at 1200 GMT was found in the Nautical Almanac to be 356 28.4. What will be the GMT of Meridian Passage? Ans. 12h 14m 06s GMT

17. Solution: GHA = 356 28.4 CM = 360 00 ( - ) Diff = 3 31.6 x 4 T/Diff = 14m 06s GMT = 12h 00m 00s ( + ) GMT MP = 12h 14m 06s

18. While proceeding up a channel on course 076 PGC, you notice a range in line dead ahead. Checking with the chart you find the true direction of the range is 075T. Variation for the locality is 11 W. If the vessels course is 089 PSC. What is the deviation for the present heading?
Ans. 3 West

## 18. Solution: T / Brg. = 075 Var. = 11 W ( + ) M/ Co = 086 Dev. = 3 W ( + ) C/Co = 089

19. Enroute from the Valpariso to Callao, the true course is 005. Variation is 13 East, deviation is 4 West. A NW wind produce 5leeway. Which of the following courses would you steer PSC to make good the true course? Ans. 351

19. Solution: T/Co. = 005 Var. = 13 E NW Wind M/Co. = 352 5 LW Dev. = 4 W C/Co. = 356 L/W = - 5 ( NW ) CTS = 351
C/Error

000

20. A vessel is heading 110 by compass. Variation for the locality is 9East, deviation is 5 West. A lighthouse bears 225PSC. The deviation on a heading of 225 is 2 West. Determine the compass error. Ans. 4 East