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Chapter 18 THERMODYNAMICS

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 1

This lecture will help you un erstan !


" " " " " " " " " Ther#o yna#ics A$solute %ero Internal Ener&y 'irst (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics A ia$atic *rocesses Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw Secon (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics Or er Ten s to Disor er Entropy

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 2

,ve"' all 'he elec'ro"s ,ve"' all( all( all 'he elec'ro"s will be s'ripped# will be s'ripped# $ have all posi'ive $ clei clei have all posi'ive char+es "shielded b( 'heir char+es "shielded b( 'heir "ormal cloa! o* elec'ro"s# "ormal cloa! o* elec'ro"s# The "e-' s'ep wo be 'o The "e-' s'ep wo ld ld be 'o brea! p 'he " clei i"'o 'heir brea! p 'he " clei i"'o 'heir i"divid co"s'i' i"divid al al co"s'i' e"'s. e"'s. pro'o"s a"d "e pro'o"s a"d "e 'ro"s# 'ro"s#

)ome are elec'ro"s s'ripped *rom 'he a'oms# A plasma or +as o* posi'ive " clei i" a sea o* elec'ro"s

All molec les have bro!e" p# $o solids or li% id# &owever i"divid al a'oms s'ill mai"'ai" 'heir chemical ide"'i'(#

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 3

Ther#o yna#ics
" The science o) ther#o yna#ics was e+elope in the early 1,th century" Ato#ic an #olecular theory o) #atter was not un erstoo then. so early ther#o yna#ics in+o/e #acroscopic i eas such as #echanical wor/. pressure. an te#perature" The )oun ation stones o) ther#o yna#ics are!
0 The conser+ation o) ener&y an 0 The )act that heat )lows spontaneously )ro# hot to col an not the other way aroun

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 4

Ther#o yna#ics
1Ther#o yna#ics is a )unny su$2ect- The )irst ti#e
you &o throu&h it. you on3t un erstan it at all- The secon ti#e you &o throu&h it. you thin/ you un erstan it. e4cept )or one or two s#all points- The thir ti#e you &o throu&h it. you /now you on3t un erstan it. $ut $y that ti#e you are so use to it. it oesn3t $other you any #ore-5
6 Arnol So##er)el

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 /

A$solute %ero
As the te#perature o) a &as chan&es. the +olu#e o) a &as chan&es" At 7ero e&rees with pressure constant. +olu#e chan&es $y 189:; )or each e&ree Celsius-

A$solute 7ero

" (owest li#it o) te#perature" Molecules ha+e lost all a+aila$le /inetic ener&yChap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 0

MFMcGraw

Internal Ener&y
" Ener&y at the particle le+el within a su$stance in se+eral )or#s. which. when ta/en to&ether. are calle internal energy" The internal ener&y o) a su$stance is <uite co#plicate = the si#plest )or# are the /inetic an potential ener&ies o) the #olecules" Our stu y )ocuses not on the internal ener&y. per se. $ut rather on the chan&es in internal ener&y o) a su$stance-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 1

The 'irst (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


>Ener&y Conser+ation?

The )irst law o) ther#o yna#ics is a restate#ent o) the law o) conser+ation o) ener&y! Energy can neither be created nor destroyed-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 8

The 'irst (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


>Ener&y Conser+ation? The 'irst (aw states that the heat a e to a syste# trans)or#s to an e<ual a#ount o) so#e other )or# o) ener&yHeat added to system Increase in + internal energy Work done by system

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 2

The 'irst (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


Another i#plication! Instea o) a in& heat. i) we o #echanical wor/ on a syste#. we can e4pect an increase in internal ener&y. i-e-. te#perature riseE4a#ples! " Ru$$in& your han s. #a/es the# war#er" @oule3s apparatus! As the wei&hts )all. they lose potential ener&y >#echanical?. which is con+erte to heat that war#s the waterMFMcGraw Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 10

First Law of Thermodynamics CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Ahen wor/ is one on a syste#B)or e4a#ple. co#pressin& air in a tire pu#pBthe te#perature o) the syste# DE'Cincreasesecreasesre#ains unchan&e is no lon&er e+i ent-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 11

First Law of Thermodynamics CHECK YOUR N!"ER Ahen wor/ is one on a syste#B)or e4a#ple. co#pressin& air in a tire pu#pBthe te#perature o) the syste#
D. E'Cincreases. ecreasesre#ains unchan&e is no lon&er e+i ent-

E4planation! In accor with the )irst law o) ther#o yna#ics. wor/ input increases the ener&y o) the syste#-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 12

Su##ary o) Ther#o yna#ic *rocesses

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 13

A ia$atic *rocesses
" Co#pressin& or e4pan in& a &as while no heat enters or lea+es the syste# is an adiabatic process. " A ia$atic con itions are achie+e $y
0 ther#ally insulatin& a syste# )ro# its surroun in&s. or 0 per)or#in& the process so rapi ly that heat has no ti#e to enter or lea+e-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 14

A ia$atic *rocesses
Heat added to system D E So! Increase/Decrease in internal energy D work done on/by system E4a#ple! Ahen we co#press air usin& a $icycle pu#p. i-e-. when we o wor/ on the syste#. we heat the air up. i-e-. increase its internal ener&y-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 1/

dia#atic $rocesses CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Flow air on your han )irst with your #outh wi e open. then with puc/ere lips- In which case is the air co#in& out o) your #outh coolerG DE'CAhen your #outh is wi e open Ahen your lips are puc/ere It is e<ually cool in $oth casesIt epen s upon who oes the e4peri#ent-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 10

dia#atic $rocesses CHECK YOUR N!"ER


Flow air on your han )irst with your #outh wi e open. then with puc/ere lips- In which case is the air co#in& out o) your #outh coolerG DE. 'CAhen your #outh is wi e open When your lips are puckered It is e<ually cool in $oth casesIt epen s upon who oes the e4peri#ent-

E4planation! Ahen you puc/er your lips the air e4pan s as it co#es outAir e4pan in& a ia$atically oes wor/ on the surroun in&sSo. it loses internal ener&y which #a/es it cooler-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 11

Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw


" Ther#o yna#ics is use)ul to #eteorolo&ists when analy7in& weather" The )irst law o) ther#o yna#ics is e4presse as! Air temperature rises as heat is added or as pressure is increased. " Heat #ay $e a
0 0 0 0

e as

inco#in& solar ra iationra iation $ac/ )ro# Earth#oisture con ensationcontact with &roun -

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 18

Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw


" In the a ia$atic )or# >i-e-. when no heat is a e ?. the )irst law o) ther#o yna#ics $eco#es! Air temperature rises or !alls" as pressure increases or decreases". " A ia$atic processes in the at#osphere occur in lar&e parts o) the air. calle parcels0 *arcels are lar&e enou&h that outsi e air oesn3t apprecia$ly #i4 with the air insi e the#0 They $eha+e as i) they are enclose in &iant. tissue6li&ht &ar#ent $a&s-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 12

Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw


" As parcels o) air rise. they e4perience lower pressure an so they e4pan " The e4pan in& air cools ownB 1EHC )or e+ery 16/# rise in altitu e" Air continues to rise an e4pan as lon& as it has a hi&her te#perature than its surroun in&s" Ahen it &ets cooler than the surroun in&s. it sin/s

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 20

Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw


" As parcels o) air rop. they e4perience hi&her pressure an heat up" E4a#ple! Chinoo/ win that escen s )ro# the Roc/ies into the Creat *lains war#s up-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 21

Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw


" Air continues to rise an e4pan as lon& as it has a hi&her te#perature than its surroun in&s" Ahen it &ets cooler than the surroun in&s. it sin/s" So. so#eti#es cooler air occurs at an altitu e lower than war#er air! temperature in#ersion.

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 22

Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw


Durin& a temperature in#ersion$ i) risin& war# air is enser than upper layers o) war# air. it will no lon&er riseE4a#ple! S#o/e )ro# a ca#p)ire so#eti#es #ay not rise-

E4a#ple! S#o& in (A is trappe $y hot air )ro# the esert co#in& o+er the #ountains-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 23

%etro&o'y and the First Law CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR I) a parcel o) ry air initially at 1EHC at &roun le+el e4pan s a ia$atically while )lowin& upwar alon&si e a #ountain a +ertical istance o) I /#. what will its te#perature $eG 1EHC 9EHC JEHC IEHC

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 24

%etro&o'y and the First Law CHECK YOUR N!"ER


I) a parcel o) ry air initially at 1EHC at &roun le+el e4pan s a ia$atically while )lowin& upwar alon&si e a #ountain a +ertical istance o) I /#. what will its te#perature $eG . . . . 1EHC 9EHC %&'( IEHC

E4planation! Air cools at the rate o) 1EHC )or e+ery 1 /#So. i) it rises I /#. it will cool! 1EHC I D IEHCSo. it will $e IEHC cooler than on the &roun Its te#p- on the &roun was 1EHCSo. its te#p- at the top will $e 1EHC 0 IEHC D JEHC-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 2/

Secon (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


Heat itsel! ne#er spontaneously !lows !rom a cold ob)ect to a hot substance. " E4a#ple!
0 In su##er. heat )lows )ro# the hot air outsi e into the cooler interior0 In winter. heat )lows )ro# the war# insi e to the col e4terior-

" Heat can )low )ro# col to hot only when wor/ is one on the syste# or $y a in& ener&y )ro# another source0 E4a#ple! heat pu#ps. air con itioners

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 20

Secon (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


" A heat engine is any e+ice that con+erts internal ener&y into #echanical wor/" The $asic i ea $ehin a heat en&ine is that #echanical wor/ can $e o$taine only when heat )lows )ro# a hi&h te#perature to a low te#perature" In e+ery heat en&ine. only so#e o) the heat can $e trans)or#e into wor/-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 21

Secon (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


" E+ery heat en&ine has
0 a reser+oir o) heat at a hi&h te#perature0 a sin/ at lower te#perature-

" E+ery heat en&ine


1- &athers heat )ro# the reser+oir at hi&h te#perature9- con+erts so#e o) this heat into #echanical wor/;- e4pels the rest o) the heat to the sin/ at lower te#perature-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 28

Secon (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


Applie to heat en&ines. the secon law o) ther#o yna#ics is state ! Ahen wor/ is one $y a heat en&ine operatin& $etween two te#peratures. Thot an Tcol . only so#e o) the input heat at Thot can $e con+erte to wor/. an the rest is e4pelle at Tcol E+ery heat en&ine e4pels so#e heat. )or e4a#ple! " The hoo o) a car $eco#es hot" Hot air is e4pelle )ro# a laun ry or $a/in& o+en-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 22

Secon (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics


" The i eal >i-e-. #a4i#u# possi$le? e))iciency o) a heat en&ine was eter#ine $y Carnot" It epen s upon the te#perature o) the hot reser+oir >Thot? an the col sin/ >Tcol ?-

T hot - Tcold Ideal efficiency = Thot


where. Thot an Tcol are in /el+in" In real heat en&ines. the e))iciency is actually less than i eal. ue to )riction-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 30

!econd Law of Thermodynamics CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Ahat is the i eal e))iciency o) a heat en&ine that is operatin& $etween a hot reser+oir at a te#perature o) JEE K an a col sin/ at a te#perature o) ;EE KG DE'C18J 189 18; ;8J

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 31

!econd Law of Thermodynamics CHECK YOUR N!"ER


Ahat is the i eal e))iciency o) a heat en&ine that is operatin& $etween a hot reser+oir at a te#perature o) JEE K an a col sin/ at a te#perature o) ;EE KG
A. " " " */% 189 18; ;8J

E4planation! Lse the )or#ula $y Carnot!

Thot - Tcold = Ideal eff ef iciency Thot


In this case! Thot D JEE K. Tcol D ;EE K So!

300 = 1/ 4 Ideal efficiency = 1 400


MFMcGraw Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 32

Or er Ten s to Disor er
Restate#ent o) the secon law o) ther#o yna#ics In natural processes$ high+,uality energy tends to trans!orm into lower+,uality energy-order tends to disorder" *rocesses in nature o not #o+e )ro# isor er to or er without e4ternal assistance-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 33

Or er6Disor er E4a#ples
" In/ rop in a &lass o) water" Tossin& a ec/ o) car s into the air" Releasin& a s#all a#ount o) ether in the corner o) a roo#" Droppin& a $a& o) #ar$les on the )loor" Any othersG

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 34

Entropy
" The #easure o) the a#ount o) isor er in a syste# is calle entropy. " I) isor er increases. then entropy increases" Entropy can ecrease i) wor/ is put into the syste#E4a#ple! (i+in& or&anis#s ta/e in )oo or e4tract
ener&y )ro# their surroun in&s an $eco#e #ore or&ani7e -

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 3/

Entro(y CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Your loc/er &ets #essier each wee/- In this case. the entropy o) your loc/er is
DE'Cincreasin&ecreasin&han&in& stea ynone4istent-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 30

Entro(y CHECK YOUR N!"ER Your loc/er &ets #essier each wee/- In this case. the entropy o) your loc/er is
D. E'Cincreasing. ecreasin&han&in& stea ynone4istent-

Co##ent! I) your loc/er $eca#e #ore or&ani7e each wee/. then entropy woul ecrease in proportion to the e))ort e4pen e -

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 31

Entropy
The net entropy in the uni+erse is continually increasin& >continually runnin& 1 ownhill5?" Ae say net $ecause there are so#e re&ions in which ener&y is actually $ein& or&ani7e an concentrate 0 This occurs in li+in& or&anis#s. which sur+i+e $y concentratin& an or&ani7in& ener&y )ro# )oo sources0 Ener&y #ust $e trans)or#e into the li+in& syste# to support li)e- Ahen it isn3t. the or&anis# soon ies an ten s towar isor er-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 38

Entropy
The secon law o) ther#o yna#ics is a pro$a$ilistic state#ent" Ci+en enou&h ti#e. e+en the #ost i#pro$a$le states #ay occur= entropy #ay so#eti#es ecrease0 'or e4a#ple. the hapha7ar #otions o) air #olecules coul #o#entarily $eco#e har#onious in a corner o) the roo#-

" These situations are possi$le. $ut they are not pro$a$le-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 32

*ossi$le an Not *ro$a$le


" The pro$a$ility o) an e+ent occurrin& can $e assi&ne a +alue in the )or# o) a )raction 6 as a eci#al it is $etween E an 1 an #ay assu#e either o) those en point +alues" The pro$a$ility is calle the p +alue" I) an e+ent can happen in one o) M ways 6 all i))erent an e<ually pro$a$le then the p +alue o) each o) those e+ents is 18M" 1*ossi$le5 #eans that the p +alue is not E 6 the e+ent coul happen" 1Not pro$a$le5 #eans that the p +alue is +ery s#allMFMcGraw Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 40

*articles in a Fo4 6Entropy De#o

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 41

The nu#$er o) #icrostates )or a &i+en #acrostate is relate to the entropy-

S = k ln
where is the nu#$er o) #icrostates D>n1 N n9?O8>n1O 4 n9O? n1 is the nu#$er o) $alls in the $o4 on the le)tn9 is the nu#$er o) $alls in the $o4 on the ri&ht-

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 42

E<uili$riu# is the Most *ro$a$le State 6 ND1EE


%)&ti(&icity
1 .2E+ 29 35.00

Lo' %)&ti(&icity

1 E+ 29

30.00

25.00 8E+ 28

No+ of !tates

No+ of !tates No in Left Bo*

20.00

6E+ 28

1 5.00

4E+ 28 1 0.00

2E+ 28 5.00

0.00

No in Left Bo*

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 43

h''p.//ww2#la*a(e''e#ed /3ph(sics/*iles/ph(s133/e"'rop(#h'ml

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 44

/he 0ritish scientist and author (.1. 2now had an e3cellent way o! remembering the three laws4
1- .ou cannot win >that is. you cannot &et so#ethin& )or nothin&. $ecause #atter an ener&y are conser+e ?9- .ou cannot break e#en >you cannot return to the sa#e ener&y state. $ecause there is always an increase in isor er= entropy always increases?;- .ou cannot get out o! the game >$ecause a$solute 7ero is unattaina$le?MFMcGraw Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 4/

Su##ary
" " " " " " " " " Ther#o yna#ics A$solute %ero Internal Ener&y 'irst (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics A ia$atic *rocesses Meteorolo&y an the 'irst (aw Secon (aw o) Ther#o yna#ics Or er Ten s to Disor er Entropy

MFMcGraw

Chap18b-Thermo-Revised-4/28/10 40