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# ChE 159 Particle Technology

MSU-IIT DChE&T

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## STRESS EQUILIBRIUM IN BULK SOLIDS

Reporter: Ruel B. Cedeno

## ChE 159 Particle Technology

MSU-IIT DChE&T

Learning Objectives
After completing this module, you should be able to do the following: Define and differentiate between normal and shear stress Visualize the physical context of stress equilibrium in bulk solids. Draw and Interpret Mohr Circles Calculate principal stress, principal planes and maximum & minimum shear stresses. Apply Mohr Circles in Failure Analysis

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## Fundamentals of Forces & Stresses

The state of load on a bulk solid is described using the similar methods youve learned in your Mechanics of Deformable Bodies (ES 64). You do not consider the forces at the individual particles of the bulk solid, but the forces on the boundary areas of individual volume elements as a whole.

## ChE 159 Particle Technology

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Visualizing Stress
the normal stress = FN/A : stress acting perpendicularly (normally) on area A; the shear stress = FS/A : stress parallel to area A. Within the bulk solid the horizontal stress, h, is a result of the vertical stress, v, where the resulting horizontal stress is less than the vertical stress exerted on the bulk solid from the top. The ratio of horizontal stress, h, to vertical stress, v, is the lateral stress ratio, Typical values of K are between 0.3 and 0.6

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## Pop Quiz #1 (1.5 min)

In Figure b, the shearing stress was found to be 4 kPa while the normal stress was determined to be 3 kPa. The contact area is 1 m2. What is the magnitude and direction of force F? a. 5kN, 30.960 b. 7 kN, 59.04 o c. 5 kN, 59.04o d. 7 kN, 30.96o

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## Pop Quiz #1 (1.5 min)

In Figure b, the shearing stress was found to be 4 kPa while the normal stress was determined to be 3 kPa. The contact area is 1 m2. What is the magnitude and direction of force F? F=[(4x1) 2 + (3x1)2]1/2 = 5 kN ; = tan-1(3/5) = 30.960 Ans: A

In bulk solids technology, shear stresses always emerge due to frictional effects

## ChE 159 Particle Technology

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Visualizing Stress

a) when not inclined, shear stress is zero b) if inclined at an angle, shear stress acts to prevent the bulk solid from sliding c) if the angle becomes steeper, shear stress wont be enough causing them to slide

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## Pop Quiz #2 ( 1.5 minutes)

A bulk solid with total mass of 2 kg is on an inclined plane with contact area of 1 m2. The coefficient of static friction between the bulk solid and the plane was determined to be 0.2 and the coefficient of kinetic friction was 0.17. At what angle with the horizontal will the solid start to fall? a. 10.31o b. 11.31 o c. 9.650 d. none of these

## ChE 159 Particle Technology

MSU-IIT DChE&T

Fundamentals of Stresses
Pop Quiz #1 ( 1.5 minutes)
A bulk solid with total mass of 2 kg is on an inclined plane with contact area of 1 m2. The coefficient of static friction between the bulk solid and the plane was determined to be 0.2 and the coefficient of kinetic friction was 0.17. At what angle with the horizontal will the solid start to fall? Solution:

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## The Mohr Circle

The Mohrs circle represents the possible combinations of normal and shear stresses acting on any plane in a body (or powder) under stress.

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## The Mohr Circle

How to Draw Mohr Circle Set a Cartesian Plane with normal stress in +x-axis upward and shear stress on +y-axis downward. Determine x, y , xy from the plane stress state. Remember the sign convention ; (+) for tension, (-) for compression; (+) for shear stress towards both +y and +x, otherwise, (-) Locate the center of the circle by calculating
x y ave. C( + , 0) 2

Plot a point X(x, xy) and connect to the center. The distance |XC| is the radius of Mohr circle. Since you have the center and the radius, you can easily draw the Mohr Circle!

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## The Mohr Circle

How to Interpret Mohr Circle
Principal Stresses the maximum and minimum normal stress in a plane which corresponds to the point of the circle touching the x-axis. Principal Planes associated with the angle from A to the xaxis. Angle of Rotation in the Mohr Circle is twice the actual angle. Point A corresponds to 0o in the actual plane. Maximum & Minimum Shear Stress top and bottom of Mohr circle.

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## The Mohr Circle

Example 4.3.1 The bulk solid is under the state of stress shown below, determine using Mohr circle Principal stresses Principal planes Maximum & minimum shearing stress

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## The Mohr Circle

Example 4.3.1 The bulk solid is under the state of stress shown below, determine using Mohr circle Principal stresses Principal planes Maximum & minimum shearing stress Given: x = +50 Mpa y = -10 Mpa xy= 40 MPa

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## The Mohr Circle

Answers: a. Principal Stresses max = 70 Mpa min = -30 Mpa b. Principal Planes max = 26.6o counterclockwise min = 63.4 o counterclockwise c. Maximum & Minimum Shear Stress max = 50 MPa min = -50 MPa

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## Application of Mohrs Circle to Failure Analysis

Each point on a yield locus represents that point on a particular Mohrs circle for which failure or yield of the powder/bulk solid occurs. A yield locus is then tangent to all the Mohrs circles representing stress systems under which the powder will fail (flow). A yield locus is usually a slightly convex upward curve. The curvature increases towards smaller normal stresses. With free-flowing, cohesionless bulk solids one usually obtains a nearly straight-lined yield locus that goes through the origin.

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## Application of Mohrs Circle to Failure Analysis

Example 4.3.2. Determine which Mohr Circle will cause the bulk solids to flow.

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## Application of Mohrs Circle to Failure Analysis

Solution: Mohrs circles (a) and (b) represent stress systems under which the powder would fail. In circle (c) the stresses are insufficient to cause flow. Circle (d) is not relevant since the system under consideration cannot support stress combinations above the yield locus. It is therefore Mohrs circles which are tangential to yield loci that are important to our analysis.

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## Application of Mohrs Circle to Failure Analysis

Example 4.3.3. A bulk solid shown below was subjected to stress and its Mohr circle was drawn. The yield locus touches the Mohr circle at =1 ksi. If the maximum shear stress is 2 ksi, what is the angle of failure of the bulk powder at the right? Ans: 60o

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## Pop Quiz #3 (2 minutes)

Example 4.3.3. A bulk solid shown below was subjected to stress and its Mohr circle was drawn. The yield locus touches the Mohr circle at =1 ksi. If the maximum shear stress is 2 ksi, What is the maximum normal stress? (Self Test) What is the shear stress at the yield point? (Self Test)