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RIBOSOM

RIBOSOM Ribosom merupakan organel yang berukuran ultra mikroskopis, berbentuk butiran, kecil, bulat, padat dan terdiri dari ribonukleoprotein Dijumpai pada sel eukariot ataupun prokariot Ribosom berfungsi dalam sintesa protein Ribosom dapat dipisahkan dari sel dengan menggunakan alat sentrifuge
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Ribosomes - The ribosome is an organelle that ultra-microscopic size, grain shape, small, round, dense and consists of ribonukleoprotein - Found in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell - Ribosomes function in protein synthesis - Ribosomes can be separated from cells by using centrifuges
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Tipe ribosom dapat dikelompokkan berdasarkan ukuran dan berat molekul pada proses sedimentasi yang dilakukan untuk mengisolasinya Koefisien sedimentasi dinyatakan sebagai S unit/Swedberg/ Syedberg unit didasarkan pada ukuran dan berat molekul

Type of ribosomes can be grouped by size and molecular weight on the sedimentation process undertaken to isolate Sedimentation coefficient S is expressed as units / Swedberg / Syedberg unit is based on the size and molecular weight

Tipe-tipe ribosom :
Berdasarkan ukuran dan koefisien pengendapannya (S), dikenal ribosom dengan tipe : 1. Ribosom 55S ; 60S dan 77S 55S : pada ribosom mitokondria mamalia 60S : pada sel mitokondria hewan 77S : pada sel jamur 2. Ribosom 70S dapat ditemukan pada sel prokariot, blue green algae, bakteri, khloroplast, Mitokondria 3. Ribosom 80S ditemukan pada sel-sel eukariot baik pada tanaman maupun hewan

types of ribosomes: Based on the size and deposition coefficient (S), known as the ribosome by type: 1. 55S ribosome: 60S and 77S 55S: the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome 60s: the mitochondria of animal cells 77S: in the yeast cells
2. 70S ribosomal can be found in prokaryotes, blue green algae , bacteria, khloroplast, Mitochondria 3. 80s ribosomes found in eukaryotic cells in both plants and animals
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Struktur Ribosom
Ribosom yang komplit disusun oleh dua sub unit yang dimiliki oleh masing-masing type yang berbeda ukuran maupun koefisien sedimentasinya Contohnya : Ribosom 55S terdiri atas 2 sub unit yaitu : 35S dan 25S Ribosom 70S terdiri atas 2 sub unit yaitu : 50S dan 30S Ribosom 80S terdiri atas 2 sub unit yaitu : 60S dan 40S
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Ribosome structure
Complete ribosomes composed by two sub units owned by each different type or size of the coefficient sedimentasi For example: - 55S ribosome consists of two sub units namely: 35S and 25s - 70S ribosome consists of two sub units namely: 50S and 30S - 80s ribosome consists of two sub units namely: 60S and 40S

Komposisi Kimia Ribosom Ribosom secara kimiawi disusun oleh rRNA, protein, lemak dan ion logam tertentu

1. RNA Ribosom (rRNA)


Ribosom 70S terdiri atas 3 type rRNA yaitu : 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, 5S rRNA 23S rRNA dan 5S rRNA terdapat pada sub unit yang besar (50S), sedangkan 16S rRNA terdapat dalam sub unit ribosom yang lebih kecil (30S) Ribosom 80S juga terdiri dari 3 type rRNA, yaitu : 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA . Ratio antara rRNA dan protein pada kedua tipe tersebut tidak 10 selalu sama

Chemical Composition of Ribosomes


Ribosomes are chemically prepared by rRNA, proteins, fats and certain metal ions 1. The ribosome RNA (rRNA) 70S ribosome consists of three types of rRNA are: 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, 5S rRNA 23S rRNA and 5S rRNA present in the large subunit (50S), whereas the 16S rRNA contained in the sub-units smaller ribosomes (30S)

80s Ribosomes also consists of three types of rRNA, namely: 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA ratio between rRNA and proteins in both types are not always the same
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Contoh : Ribosom 70S : mengandung rRNA lebih besar dibandingkan dengan protein, yaitu rRNA 60-64%, protein 3637% ; E. coli : rRNA = 63%, protein =37% Ribosom 80S : mempunyai rRNA lebih sedikit dibanding protein, yaitu rRNA 40-44%, protein 56-60%
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example: 70S ribosomes: rRNA containing larger than the protein, namely rRNA 60-64%, 36-37% protein; E. coli: rRNA = 63%, protein = 37% 80s ribosomes: rRNA have fewer than proteins, namely rRNA 40-44%, 56-60% protein

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2. Protein Ribosom Pada sel prokariot ribosom type 70S mengandung 55 protein ribosom, yang terdiri dari : 34 protein pada sub unit 50S, 21 protein pada sub unit 30S Analisis kimia dari sub unit ribosom memberikan hasil Sel prokariot : sub unit > mengandung 2 molekul rRNA masingmasing 23S dan 5S mengandung 31-34 jenis protein sub unit < hanya mengandung sebuah rRNA dengan koefisien sedimentasi 16S 21 jenis protein
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2. proteins Ribosomes
In prokaryotes type 70S ribosome contains 55 ribosomal proteins, which consists of: 34 proteins in 50S subunits, 21 proteins in the 30S subunit Chemical analysis of the ribosomal subunits provide results Prokaryotes: sub-unit> containing two molecules each of the 23S rRNA and 5S contains 31-34 types of proteins sub-unit <only contains a sedimentation coefficient of

16S rRNA with 21 types of proteins

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Sel eukariot : terdiri dari 2 sub unit, masing-masing memiliki koefisien sedimentasi 60S dan 40S
sub unit > mempunyai 3 buah rRNA masingmasing dengan koefisien sedimentasi 28S ; 5,8S dan 5S 45-49 jenis protein sub unit < mempunyai 1 buah rRNA koefisien sedimentasi 18S 33 jenis protein

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eukaryotes: consists of two sub-units, each has a sedimentation coefficient of 60S and 40S sub-unit> has 3 pieces each with its own rRNA sedimentation coefficient of 28S; 5.8 S and 5S 45-49 types of proteins sub-unit <has a sedimentation coefficient of 18S rRNA fruit 33 species of proteins

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Composition of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes

Biologi Umum

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3. Protein Enzimatik Ribosom


Protein ribosom kebanyakan bertindak sebagai enzim, yang mengkatalisis proses-proses pada sintesis protein.
a. Protein transfer factor (faktor G dan faktor Ts) diperlukan untuk melakukan translokasi ribosom pada mRNA, untuk menstransfer tRNA pada ribosom dari satu tempat ke tempat lainnya, untuk mengikat tRNA yang membawa asam amino pada mRNA selama proses sintesis protein. b. Protein initiation factor (F1, F2 ) protein yang memulai terjadinya proses sintesis protein c. Protein termination factor (R1 dan R2) protein yang mengakhiri dan melepaskan rantai polipeptida yang telah selesai dibuat dari ribosom.
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3. Enzymatic Protein Ribosome Ribosomal proteins mostly act as enzymes, which catalyze the process of protein synthesis. a. Protein transfer factor (G factor and factor Ts) required to perform the ribosome on the mRNA translocation, to menstransfer tRNA on the ribosome from one place to elsewhere, to bind the tRNA that carries acid amino on the mRNA during protein synthesis process. b. Protein initiation factor (F1, F2) proteins that initiate the process of protein synthesis c. Termination of protein factor (R1 and R2) proteins that terminate and release the polypeptide chain which has been created from the ribosome.

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4. Ion Metalik
Terdiri dari ion Mg++ , Ca2+, Mn+ Kedua sub unit ribosom tetap merupakan satu kesatuan karena pengaruh konsentrasi ion magnesium ( Mg++ ) . Bila konsentrasi ion magnesium cukup tinggi maka kedua subunit ribosom akan bersatu membentuk suatu kesatuan yang disebut dimer

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4. Metallic ion Consisting of Mg ++ ions, Ca2 +, Mn + Both ribosomal subunits remains a single entity because of the influence of the concentration of magnesium ions (Mg + +). If the magnesium ion concentration is high enough then the two ribosomal subunits will unite to form a union called the dimer
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Cryoelectron microscopybased image of the E. coli ribosome at ~25 resolution.

Biologi Umum

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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

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Protein Synthesis
The production (synthesis) of polypeptide chains (proteins) Two phases: Transcription & Translation mRNA must be processed before it leaves the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

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DNA RNA Protein


DNA

Transcription

mRNA
Ribosome
Translation

Protein

Prokaryotic Cell

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DNA RNA Protein


DNA
Transcription Nuclear membrane

Eukaryotic Cell

Pre-mRNA

RNA Processing

mRNA

Ribosome
Translation

Protein
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Pathway to Making a Protein


DNA
mRNA tRNA (ribosomes) Protein
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Nucleic Acids

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DNA or Protein?
Walter Sutton discovered chromosomes were made of DNA and Protein However, scientists were NOT sure which one (protein or DNA) was the actual genetic material of the cell
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DNA!
Frederick Griffith in 1928 showed the DNA was the cells genetic material Watson & Crick in the 1950s built the 1st model of DNA
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Structure of DNA
DNA is made of subunits called nucleotides DNA nucleotides are composed of a phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base The 4 bases in DNA are: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C)

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DNA Nucleotide
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Base Pairing Rule


Watson and Crick showed that DNA is a double helix A (adenine) pairs with T (thymine) C (cytosine) pairs with G (guanine)

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Nitrogen Rings
Purines have single rings of carbon-nitrogen (G, A) Pyrimidines have double carbonnitrogen rings (C, T) This is called complementary base pairing because a purine is always paired with a pyrimidine
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5 to 3 Sugars
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When the DNA double helix unwinds, it resembles a ladder The sides of the ladder are the sugar-phosphate backbones The rungs of the ladder are the complementary paired bases The two DNA strands are anti-parallel (they run in opposite directions)

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AntiParallel Strands of DNA

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DNA Replication

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Steps in DNA Replication


Occurs when chromosomes duplicate (make copies) An exact copy of the DNA is produced with the aid of the enzyme DNA polymerase Hydrogen bonds between bases break and enzymes unzip the molecule Each old strand of nucleotides serves as a template for each new strand New nucleotides move into complementary positions are joined by DNA polymerase
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Two New, Identical DNA Strands Result from Replication

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Another View of Replication

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RNA

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RNA Differs from DNA


1. RNA DNA 2. RNA DNA 3. RNA DNA has a sugar ribose has a sugar deoxyribose contains the base uracil (U) has thymine (T) molecule is single-stranded is double-stranded

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Structure of RNA

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Three Types of RNA


Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries genetic information to the ribosomes Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), along with protein, makes up the ribosomes Transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers amino acids to the ribosomes where proteins are synthesized
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Making a Protein

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Genes & Proteins


Proteins are made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds 20 different amino acids exist Amino acids chains are called polypeptides Segment of DNA that codes for the amino acid sequence in a protein are called genes
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Two Parts of Protein Synthesis


Transcription makes an RNA molecule complementary to a portion of DNA Translation occurs when the sequence of bases of mRNA DIRECTS the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
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Genetic Code
DNA contains a triplet code Every three bases on DNA stands for ONE amino acid Each three-letter unit on mRNA is called a codon Most amino acids have more than one codon! There are 20 amino acids with a possible 64 different triplets The code is nearly universal among living organisms
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Transcription

Translation

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Overview of Transcription
During transcription in the nucleus, a segment of DNA unwinds and unzips, and the DNA serves as a template for mRNA formation RNA polymerase joins the RNA nucleotides so that the codons in mRNA are complementary to the triplet code in DNA

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Steps in Transcription
The transfer of information in the nucleus from a DNA molecule to an RNA molecule Only 1 DNA strand serves as the template Starts at promoter DNA (TATA box) Ends at terminator DNA (stop) When complete, pre-RNA molecule is released
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Transcription

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What is the enzyme responsible for the production of the mRNA molecule?
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RNA Polymerase
Enzyme found in the nucleus Separates the two DNA strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the bases Then moves along one of the DNA strands and links RNA nucleotides together
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DNA RNA Polymerase

pre-mRNA
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Question:
What would be the complementary RNA strand for the following DNA sequence? DNA 5-GCGTATG-3
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Answer:
DNA 5-GCGTATG-3 RNA 3-CGCAUAC-5

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Processing Pre-mRNA
Also occurs in the nucleus Pre-mRNA made up of segments called introns & exons Exons code for proteins, while introns do NOT! Introns spliced out by splicesomeenzyme and exons re-join End product is a mature RNA molecule that leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm
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RNA Processing
pre-RNA molecule
exon intron exon intron exon

intron

intron

exon
splicesome

exon
splicesome

exon

exo n

exon

exon
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Mature RNA molecule

Messenger RNA (mRNA)


Carries the information for a specific protein Made up of 500 to 1000 nucleotides long Sequence of 3 bases called codon AUG methionine or start codon UAA, UAG, or UGA stop codons
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Messenger RNA (mRNA)


start codon mRNA

A U G G G C U C C A U C G G C G C A U A A
codon 1 codon 2
glycine

codon 3
serine

codon 4
isoleucine

codon 5
glycine

codon 6
alanine

codon 7
stop codon

protein methionine

Primary structure of a protein


aa1 aa2 aa3 peptide bonds aa4 aa5 aa6
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)


Made up of 75 to 80 nucleotides long Picks up the appropriate amino acid floating in the cytoplasm Transports amino acids to the mRNA Have anticodons that are complementary to mRNA codons Recognizes the appropriate codons on the mRNA and bonds to them with H-bonds
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)


amino acid attachment site

methionine

amino acid

U A C

anticodon

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Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)


Made up of rRNA is 100 to 3000 nucleotides long Made inside the nucleus of a cell Associates with proteins to form ribosomes
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Ribosomes
Made of a large and small subunit Composed of rRNA (40%) and proteins (60%) Have two sites for tRNA attachment --- P and A
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Ribosomes
Large subunit

P Site

A Site
mRNA

Small subunit

A U G

C U A C U U C G
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Translation
Synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm Involves the following: 1. mRNA (codons) 2. tRNA (anticodons) 3. ribosomes 4. amino acids

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Translation
Three steps: 1. initiation: start codon (AUG) 2. elongation: amino acids linked 3. termination: stop codon (UAG, UAA, or UGA).

Lets Make a Protein !


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mRNA Codons Join the Ribosome


Large subunit

P Site

A Site
mRNA

A U G
Small subunit

C U A C U U C G
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Initiation
aa1 aa2

2-tRNA 1-tRNA

anticodon
hydrogen bonds

U A C A U G codon

G A U C U A C U U C G A
mRNA
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Elongation
peptide bond
aa1 aa2 aa3

3-tRNA 1-tRNA 2-tRNA

G A A

anticodon
hydrogen bonds

U A C A U G codon

G A U C U A C U U C G A
mRNA
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aa1

peptide bond

aa3
aa2

1-tRNA

U A C
(leaves) 2-tRNA

3-tRNA

G A A

A U G

G A U C U A C U U C G A
mRNA
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Ribosomes move over one codon

aa1

peptide bonds

aa4
aa2 aa3

4-tRNA
2-tRNA 3-tRNA

G C U

A U G

G A U G A A C U A C U U C G A A C U
mRNA
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aa1

peptide bonds aa2 aa3

aa4

2-tRNA

G A U
(leaves) 3-tRNA

4-tRNA

G C U

A U G

G A A C U A C U U C G A A C U
mRNA
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Ribosomes move over one codon

aa1

peptide bonds aa2 aa3 aa4

aa5

5-tRNA

U G A
3-tRNA 4-tRNA

G A A G C U G C U A C U U C G A A C U
mRNA
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aa1

peptide bonds

aa5

aa2
aa3 aa4

5-tRNA

3-tRNA

U G A
4-tRNA

G A A

G C U G C U A C U U C G A A C U
mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon

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aa4

aa5
aa199
aa200

Termination

aa3 primary structure aa2 of a protein aa1

200-tRNA

terminator or stop codon

A C U
mRNA

C A U G U U U A G
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End Product The Protein!


The end products of protein synthesis is a primary structure of a protein A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds
aa4 aa5
aa199
aa200
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aa2
aa1

aa3

TERIMA KASIH

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