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CAP, Source rock & MIGRATION

a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Methane [1C] and ethane [2C] are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be readily liquified by pressure alone. Propane [3C] is however easily liquified, and exists in 'propane bottles' mostly as a liquid. Butane [4C] is so easily liquified that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters. Pentane [5C] is a clear liquid at room temperature, commonly used in chemistry and industry as a powerful nearly odorless solvent of waxes and high molecular weight organic compounds, including greases. Hexane [6C] is also a widely used non-polar, non-aromatic solvent, as well as a significant fraction of common gasoline

The formula used to obtain the API gravity of petroleum liquids is thus:

Conversely, the specific gravity of petroleum liquids can be derived from the API gravity value as

Thus, a heavy oil with a specific gravity of 1.0 (i.e., with the same density as pure water at 60F) would have an API gravity of:

Light crude oil is defined as having an API gravity higher than 31.1 API Medium oil is defined as having an API gravity between 22.3 API and 31.1 API Heavy oil is defined as having an API gravity below 22.3 API.

Facts to Consider
Location, Size, Maximum Depth, Age ( From Basement to Outcrop + max subsidence), Stratigraphy Other item; eg Structure (extentional, compressional)

Petroleum System Source rocks: Name(s), Kerogen type(s), TOC, depth to top oil window, kitchen location Migration Pathway: Carrier bed(s), faults, distance (vertical and horizontal) Traps: Structural, stratigraphics, Combination (dominant type) Reservoirs: Names, Rock types (both reservoir and seal) Representative Fields (The biggest ones) OOIP,OGIP, RF, Cum Prod Other (History, technology, etc)

Petroleum System Elements Petroleum System Elements

Anticlinal Trap

Top Seal Rock


Reservoir Rock
(Porous/Permeable) Potential Migration Route


Source Rock

(Organic Rich)


Petroleum System Elements

Source Rock - A rock with abundant hydrocarbon-prone
organic matter Reservoir Rock - A rock in which oil and gas Acumulates: - Porosity - space between rock grains in which oil accumulates - Permeability - passage-ways between pores through which oil and gas moves Seal Rock - A rock through which oil and gas cannot move effectively (such as mudstone and claystone) Migration Route - Avenues in rock through which oil and gas moves from source rock to trap Trap - The structural and stratigraphic configuration that focuses oil and gas into an accumulation

Cap & Source Rock

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud, which is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable.[1] Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility.[1] Mudstones, on the other hand, are similar in composition but do not show the fissility.
caprock is generally referred to as any nonpermeable formation that may trap oil, gas or water, preventing it from migrating to the surface

Cap Rock
A reservoir needs a cap rock. A relatively impermeable rock, commonly shale, anhydrite or salt, that forms a barrier or seal above and around reservoir rock so that fluids cannot migrate beyond the reservoir. It is often found atop a salt dome. The permeability of a cap rock capable of retaining fluids through geologic time is ~ 10-6-10-8 darcies.

Non Biogenic Origins
Biogenic (Kerogen) Host Rock ( Shales and Coals)

Kerogen Types Types I Algal (oil prone) sapropelic

Types II Mixed
Types III Woody ( gas prone) humic

Non Biogenic Origins

Biogenic (Kerogen)

Types I Algal (oil prone) sapropelic

Types II Mixed Types III Woody ( gas prone) humic

Host Rock ( Shales and Coals)

A rock rich in organic matter which, if heated sufficiently, will generate oil or gas. Typical source rocks, usually shales or limestones, contain about 1% organic matter and at least 0.5% total organic carbon (TOC), although a rich source rock might have as much as 10% organic matter. Rocks of marine origin tend to be oil-prone, whereas terrestrial source rocks (such as coal) tend to be gas-prone

Types of Petroleum
Oil and Gas are formed by the thermal cracking of

Organic compounds buried in fine grain rocks

Algae = Wood =

Hydrogen Rich = Oil prone

Hydrogen Poor = Gas prone


Source Rocks
Hydrocarbon originates from minute organisms in seas and lakes. When they die, they sink to the bottom where they form organicrich "muds" in fine sediments. These "muds" are in a reducing environment or "kitchen", which strips oxygen from the sediments leaving hydrogen and carbon. The sediments are compacted to form organic-rich rocks with very low permeability. The hydrocarbon can migrate very slowly to nearby porous rocks, displacing the original formation water.

Non Biogenic Origins

Biogenic (Kerogen)
Types I Algal (oil prone) sapropelic Types II Mixed Types III Woody ( gas prone) humic

Host Rock ( Shales and Coals)

The Origin of Petroleum

Oil shale, an organic-rich finegrained sedimentary rock, contains significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which technology can be used to extract liquid hydrocarbons. The name oil shale is a misnomer as geologists would not necessarily classify the rock as a shale, and its kerogen differs from crude oil

Source Rock of Petroleum

A type of woody kerogen that is relatively uniform in composition. Since vitrinite changes predictably and consistently upon heating, its reflectance is a useful measurement of source rock maturity. Strictly speaking, the plant material that forms vitrinite did not occur prior to Ordovician time. Also, because vitrinite originated in wood, its occurrence in marine rocks might be limited by the depositional processes that act in a given depositional environment.

Vitrinite reflectance

A measurement of the maturity of organic matter with respect to whether it has generated hydrocarbons or could be an effective source rock. The reflectivity of at least 30 individual grains of vitrinite from a rock sample is measured under a microscope. The measurement is given in units of reflectance, % Ro, with typical values ranging from 0% Ro to 3% Ro. Generally, the onset of oil generation is correlated with a reflectance of 0.5-0.6% and the termination of oil generation with reflectance of 0.85-1.1%.

Source Rock Kerogen Can Be Correlated to oil/gas found in carrier beds and reservoir

An area of the subsurface where source rock has reached appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature to generate hydrocarbons; also known as source kitchen, oil kitchen or gas kitchen. Bitumen includes hydrocarbons such as asphalt and mineral wax. Typically solid or nearly so, brown or black, bitumen has a distinctive petroliferous odor. Laboratory dissolution with organic solvents allows determination of the amount of bitumen in samples, an assessment of source rock richness.

The Petroleum Kitchen

Geothermal Garadient : (Thermogenic Hydrocarbons) Range : <1 to 11 degrees F per 100 Typical Sedimentary Basins : 1.0 1.7 degrees F per 100 Good Average : 1.2 Oil Window of ~ 120 300F (50-150 C) or about 5000-20000 In Practice, oil below 15000 rare

Gas~ no practical limit to stable depth Cracking of oil to gas controlled by source kerogen and temperature Deep basin mostly gas Practical limits related to maturity of source-not reservoir

The naturally occurring, solid, insoluble organic matter that occurs in source rocks and can yield oil upon heating. Typical organic constituents of kerogen are algae and woody plant material. Kerogens have a high molecular weight relative to bitumen, or soluble organic matter. Bitumen forms from kerogen during petroleum generation. Kerogens are described as Type I, consisting of mainly algal and amorphous (but presumably algal) kerogen and highly likely to generate oil; Type II, mixed tterrestrial and marine source material that can generate waxy oil; and Type III, woody terrestrial source material that typically generates gas.

Proses diagenesis material organik yang diakibatkan oleh proses biologis lebih dominan terjadi dalam sedimen yang baru terendapkan (recently deposited) dan biasa terjadi pada kedalaman hingga 2 km serta temperatur maksimal 75oC.
Pada proses diagenesis, yang terjadi adalah proses kondesasi pembentukan makromolekul yang kompleks (kerogen) dari bahan pembentuknya yang lebih sederhana. Sebaliknya pada proses katagenesis ini makromolekul yang kompleks terurai menjadi molekul yang lebih sederhana yang lebih kaya akan hidrogen.

Temperature Window
Fasa yang kaya akan hidrogen ini bersifat mobile dan dapat bermigrasi keluar dari batuan sumber. Katagenesis terjadi pada rentang kedalaman 3-4 km dengan kisaran temperatur sekitar 50-150oC dan tekanan sebesar 300 sampai 1500 bar Pada akhir proses katagenesis (transisi ke metagenesis), yaitu pada temperatur sekitar 150-180oC proses pemutusan berjalan lebih lanjut menghasilkan hidrokarbon dengan rantai yang lebih pendek ( C5) yang dapat berupa gas dan sedikit hidrokarbon dengan rantai > C5 yang disebut kondensat sehingga sering juga disebut sebagai zona gas basah (wet gas).

Hydrocarbon Occurence & Thermal Maturity



Kitchen between RO=0,6 and MW=1,60 s.g. Kitchen only in the shelf But new discoveries and basin modelisation tend to show that this model is incomplete

> 500 m 0 - 500m