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International Railway Safety Conference 2007 Goa, India

Risk-based Evaluations and Trends of Railway Casualty Accidents on the National Railway of South Korea

30th September - 6th October

Chanwoo Park, Jongbae Wang, Yunok Cho, Hyukjin Yoon, Joonam Park




Development of Risk Assessment Model


Risk Assessment Results



1. Introduction

Railway Accident Classification in South Korea

The Railway Safety Act was established in 2004 The railway accident report regulation has been set up in 2006 Railway Accident Classification by the Railway Accident Report Regulation Train Accident Railway Traffic Accident Level Crossing Accident Railway Traffic Casualty Accident
Train collision accident, Train derailment accident, Train fire accident, Other train accidents Collision or contact between a train and a road vehicle on the railway level crossing (excluding collision between a train and people) Passenger casualty accident, Worker casualty accident, MOP casualty accident (including collision between a train and people in level crossings)

Train Operation Delay Accident Railway Safety Accident Disaster

Rolling stock derailment, Rolling stock damages, Rolling stock fire, Rolling stock separation, Rolling stock rolling, Regulation violation such as SPAD, Railway track failure, Electric supply system failure, Signal system failure, Rolling stock failure, etc Railway safety casualty accident, Fire accident, Infrastructure/equipment accident, Construction accident

1. Introduction

Railway Casualty Accident

The railway casualty accident refers to ..

Casualty accidents in both railway traffic accidents and safety accidents

All kinds of accidents that cause Injuries of people on railway premises

Excluding train derailment, train collision, train fires/explosion Excluding collision between a train and a road vehicle on the railway level crossing Including suspected suicide Including collision between a train and people in level crossings

1. Introduction

Railway Casualty Accident Situation on the Main Line

Accident Frequency per Year

1200 1100 1000 900
Total Accident Frequency Casualty Accident Frequency

Fatalities and Weighted Injuries (FWI/Year)

Total Accident Risk Casualty Accident Risk


700 600 500 400 300 2000 2001 2002 Y ear 2003 2004 2005






0.1 of a fatality for major injury 0.005 of a fatality for minor injury.

150 2000 2001 2002 Y ear 2003 2004 2005

the number of casualty accidents occupies more than 50% of railway accidents and 90% of the total risk of railway in South Korea.

1. Introduction

Research Objectives

Quantitative Risk Evaluation of Casualty Accidents for Passengers, Railway Staffs and MOP (Member of public)

Risk Analysis

Frequency Analysis

Consequence Analysis

Interaction analysis between hazardous events and hazardous condition Hazard Identification / Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)

Accident Analysis

Safety regulations, Published sources Accident related reports

2. Development of Risk Assessment Model

Risk Analysis Process

Causal Analysis Hazard Identification Consequence Analysis Loss Analysis Options Analysis Impact Analysis Demonstration Of ALARP and Compliance

- Railtrack, Yellow Book 3: Fundamentals and Guidance, 2000 -

2. Development of Risk Assessment Model

Overall Procedures
Hazard Identification

Defining the Initiating Hazardous Events

Development of Accident Scenarios

Railway Accident Appearance Scenarios Hazardous Events FTA Model

Railway Accident Consequence Analysis

Progress Scenarios

Casual Analysis

ETA Model

Risk Assessment (Loss Analysis)

2. Development of Risk Assessment Model

Initiating Hazardous Events

Railway Category People struck/crushed Railway Traffic Casualty Accident Trip/Slip Falling Caught/Dragged Others People struck/crushed Trip/Slip Falling Railway safety accident Caught/Dragged Electric Shock Burn Suffocation Others Initiating Hazardous Events Striking with train, Striking with objects Trip/slip during train boarding/alighting, Trip/slip by train emergency braking/emergency start Falling from train, Falling from platform during train boarding/alighting Caught in a train door, Caught between platform and train Electric Shock, Burn, Suffocation Striking with rolling stock, Striking with objects Trip/slip inside station premises, Trip/slip on track/level crossing, Trip/slip inside rolling stock , Trip/slip at workplace Falling from rolling stock, Falling from rolling stock roof, Falling during elevated work, Falling from railway structure, Falling from platform Caught in installations inside rolling stock, Caught in railway structure of station, Caught in work equipment/objects Electric shock in rolling stock and railway structure Burn in rolling stock and railway structure Suffocation in rolling stock and railway structure Patient occurrence, Assault/threat, Discovery for casualties 9

2. Development of Risk Assessment Model

Accident Appearance Scenario Structure

Hazardous Event

Hazardous Factor 1

Hazardous Factor X



Third Party Hazard



Third Party Hazard





Detailed Hazardous Factors

Detailed Hazardous Factors

The number of

Hazardous events is 28. Appearance scenarios including hazardous factors is 282. Detailed hazardous factors is 47. Accident appearance scenarios is 13,254.

2. Development of Risk Assessment Model

Accident Appearance Scenario Example


2. Development of Risk Assessment Model

Accident Progress Scenario Structure

Critical factors influencing accident severity were identified in the accident progress scenarios

Example of the Accident Progress Scenarios


2. Development of Risk Assessment Model

Accident Analysis Information System

Railway Accident Analysis Information System

Statistical Analysis of Accident/Incident Data

Accident/Incident Analysis

Accident Scenario Creation/Management

1) railway operation data processing part; 2) accident/incident data processing part; 3) hazard list management part; 4) hazardous event management part; 5) environment condition management

part; 6) safety measure management part; 7) statistical analysis part of accident/incident data; 8)
accident scenario creation/management part

3. Risk Assessment Results

Railway Casualty Accident Data Analysis

Railway accident data for two years (2004 2005) on the main line of South Korea were analyzed. In the case of rare events not available from accident data, each risk were assessed using engineering judgments.

Average Frequency per year: 447.0

Total risk per year: 182.9

Injured People Fatalities and Weighted Injuries (FWI)/Year Values Percentages

Member of public (MOP) Staff Total

115.3 14.5 182.8

63.1% 7.9% 100.0%


3. Risk Assessment Results

Total Risk for Railway Casualty Accidents


3. Risk Assessment Results

Average Frequency/yr for Hazardous Events


3. Risk Assessment Results

Risk for Hazardous Events


3. Risk Assessment Results

Risk for Train Striking Events


3. Risk Assessment Results

Risk Profile


4. Conclusion
Development of risk assessment model for the railway casualty accidents

Risk model based on the accident scenarios.

Totally 28 initiating hazardous events

Accident frequency assessment model using the FTA technique Consequence estimation model using the FTA technique Risk assessment for railway casualty accidents

Total overall risk per year: 182.9

Risk per year for passenger, MOP, and staff: 53, 115.3, 14.5 Risk of people striking with train event: 86.7% Risk of trespassers on the open tracks between stations event: 49.2%

First step in the risk assessment of railway casualty accidents in Korea

Application to the definition of the risk reduction measures


Thank you!