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Digital Kamera/konvensional

Elemen-elemen penting yang patut anda pelajari 1. Teknik memokus 2. Shutter Speed (kelajuan bukatup) 3. Aperture 4. IS0 5. Kombinasi Shutter Speed dan Aperture 6. Dedahan (Exposure) dan Pengukuran dedahan 7. Program/TV/AV 8. Lensa dan sudut pandangan (angle of View)

Bagaimana kamera berfungsi

Pentaprism
View Fiunder

Sutter Blade
Arah cahaya

Kedudukan Filem atau CCD.

Light sensor

Mode dial- kawalan sepenuhnya sesebuah kamera

Exposure Modes (mode dedahan) Manual - Kawalan sepenuhnya oleh Jurugambar Program Kawalan sepenuhya oleh kamera Shutter Priority (TV) Kawalan shutter oleh Jurugambar Aperture Priority(AV) Kawalan Aperture oleh Jurugambar

Mengandungi kawalan Program Yang dikawal oleh kamera Auto 2. Portrait 3. Landscape 4. Close Up 5. Sports

Gambar kecilLCD panel

Shutter Speed
Merupakan kelajuan bukaan tingkap (shutter blade) mengikut Kaedah pengukuran masa Tugasan shutter

Memberhentikan subjek yang bergerak dalam gambar. Mengimbangi aperture bagi mendapatkan kesan dedahan normal.

Bukaan shutter speed B Stop (bulb) - Tingkap terbuka apabila butang penekan shutter di tekan sesuai untuk penggambaran waktu malam. Hasil Gambar Slow Speed Shutter Gambar menunjukkan kesan Pergerakan subjek Merakam gambar dalam situasi yang kurang cahaya seperti dlm bangunan dan sebagainya

Bacaan 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250 500 1,000 2,000

Kaedah masa - 1/1 Saat - 1/2 Saat - 1/4 Saat - 1/8 Saat - 1/15 Saat - 1/30 Saat - 1/60 Saat - 1/125

Normal Speed Shutter

- 1/250 saat High Speed Shutter - 1/500 saat Gambar menunjukkan - 1/1,000 saat memberhentikan pergerakan - 1/2000 saat (rakam gambar sukan)

High speed shutter

Normal speed shutter

Slow speed Shutter

Contoh gambar kesan kelajuan shutter speed

Slow speed Shutter 1/10 saat

Kelajuan Shutter 1/4000 saat

250

2000

4000

Kelajuan Shutter 1/30 saat

Kelajuan Shutter 1/15 saat

Aperture Lubang Aperture pada Lens yang berperanan mengawal kemasukan cahaya Mengikut kaedah kuantiti Tugas Aperture

Kawalan Dept Of Field (jarak Fokas) Mengimbangi Shutter Speed bagi mendapatkan gambar normal.

Bacaan Aperture (Focal) F1 Lubang Aperture paling besar F1.4 F1.8 Semakin besar no aperture semakin kecil saiz F2 Lubang Aperture F2.8 F4 Semakin besar lubang Aperture semakin F5.6 semakin banyak cahaya masuk F8 F11 F16 F22 F32 Lubang Aperture paling kecil

Contoh lubang Aperture

Semakin besar lubang Aperture semakin banyak cahaya masuk dalam Kamera Semakin besar lubang Aperture semakin sempit jarak fokus

Dedahan/Exposure
Cahaya yang dihasilkan melalui kombinasi shutter speed dan aperture mengikut Keperluan tindakbalas ISO Pengukuran dedahan Dalam Kamera Luar kamera - Meter cahaya pada pemidang tilik - Menggunakan Exposure meter

Teknik Pengukuran diukur oleh kamera melalui pemidang

Hasil dedahan

Dedahan Under

- Kurang cahaya/gelap

2. Dedahan Normal - Cahaya seimbang (gambar cantik) hasil dari kombinasi seimbang antara shutter speed dan Aperture memenuhi keperluan kepekaan filem
3. Dedahan Over - Lebih cahaya (gambar putih pucat dan kurang Menarik

Hasil Exposure

Over Lebih cahaya

Normal Cahaya mencukupi

Under Kurang cahaya

Kombinasi Shutter Speed dan Aperture

Iso 100 (mengikut kadar cahaya panas terik)


Shutter speed 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250 500 1,000

Aperture F1 f1.2 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6

11 16

22

32

Iso 100 (Kadar cahaya mendung)


Shutter speed 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250 500 1,000 8 11 16 22 32

Aperture F1 f1.2 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6

Kesan dedahan Rakaman secara braketing (Iso 200 )

Under 2,000/f8

Under 1,000/f8

Under 500/f8

Under

250/f8

Normal 125/ f8

Over 60/F8

Over 30/f8

0ver 15/f8

Over 8/f8

Kesesuaian penggunaan lensa

Gambar potret Pemandangan/lanskap Group photo Sukan

Telephoto 85/100/135mm Wide angle 35mm/28mm Wide angle 35 mm Zoom lens telephoto

Mengambil gambar di ruangan bilik Wide angel lens 35mm atau sempit Zomm lens wide angle. Gambar jarak dekat (close up) seperti bunga, serengga dll Micro lens

Kesan DOF

Sempit

: Lubang Aperture - Semakin Besar Fokus - Dekat Lensa - Telephoto : Lubang Aperture - Kecil Fokus - Jauh Lensa - Wide Angle

Luas

TRIPOD
Fungsi tripod yang terutama adalah untuk menyangga kamera sehingga foto/video tidak kabur. Fungsi ini banyak digantikan oleh fungsi image stabilization (IS) kamera atau lensa dan juga perkembangan kamera digital yang mampu memproduksi foto yang relatif bersih meski dalam setting ISO tinggi atau di tempat yang kurang cahaya

Contoh gambar Dept Of Field Subjek Jelas (dlm ruangan DOF) Latar belakang Kabur Diluar ruangan DOF Aparture???

Contoh gambar Dept Of Field Subjek Jelas Latar belakang Jelas (dlm ruangan DOF) Aparture???

Komposisi dan sudut

DEFINITION
Composition is the art of creating images that tell the story the photographer intended. (Randy, RG Digital Photography Tips) Composition means arrangement: the orderly putting together of parts to make a unified whole; composition through a personal, intuitive act.

Environmental portraits can often leave the viewer wondering if the image is about the environment, or the person(s) in the portrait. To emphasize my portrait subject in this image I employed the Rule of Thirds to focus the viewers attention on Andy, and not the surrounding woods. The Rule of Thirds states that important information in the photograph should fall on the lines and intersections created by dividing the frame horizontally and vertically into thirds. If you imagine two lines drawn vertically to split the frame into thirds you will see that my subject is standing a third of the way into the frame. If you then draw two horizontal lines to divide the image into thirds from top to bottom, you will see the subjects head is located

This next image is an example of using a Leading Line to direct the viewers attention through the photograph. The leading line in this image is obvious, although there are a couple of notes I would like you to observe. First, the railing enters the image from the left at a different angle from the rest of the path. Notice how this part of the railing is located based on the Rule of Thirds. Had I not included this part of the railing a viewers eye would be led through the image just the same. However, there would be no visible anchor to bring the eye back into the frame. The left side of the image serves as an anchor to bring

RULES OF THIRD

RULE OF THIRD
Imagine that your image is divided into 9 equal segments by 2 vertical and 2 horizontal lines. The rule of thirds says that you should position the most important elements in your scene along these lines, or at the points where they intersect.

Doing so will add balance and interest to your photo. Some cameras even offer an option to superimpose a rule of thirds grid over the LCD screen, making it even easier to use

BALANCING ELEMENTS
Placing your main subject off-centre, as with the rule of thirds, creates a more interesting photo, but it can leave a void in the scene which can make it feel empty. You should balance the "weight" of your subject by including another object of lesser importance to fill the space.

LEADING LINES
When we look at a photo our eye is naturally drawn along lines. By thinking about how you place lines in your composition, you can affect the way we view the image, pulling us into the picture, towards the subject, or on a journey "through" the scene. There are many different types of line - straight, diagonal, curvy, zigzag, radial etc and each can be used to enhance our photo's composition.

SYMMETRY AND PATTERNS


We are surrounded by symmetry and patterns, both natural and man-made., They can make for very eye-catching compositions, particularly in situations where they are not expected. Another great way to use them is to break the symmetry or pattern in some way, introducing tension and a focal point to the scene.

VIEWPOINT
Before photographing your subject, take time to think about where you will shoot it from. Our viewpoint has a massive impact on the composition of our photo, and as a result it can greatly affect the message that the shot conveys. Rather than just shooting from eye level, consider photographing from high above, down at ground level, from the side, from the back, from a long way away, from very close up, and so on.

BACKGROUND
How many times have you taken what you thought would be a great shot, only to find that the final image lacks impact because the subject blends into a busy background? The human eye is excellent at distinguishing between different elements in a scene, whereas a camera has a tendency to flatten the foreground and background, and this can often ruin an otherwise great photo. Thankfully this problem is usually easy to overcome at the time of shooting - look around for a plain and unobtrusive background and compose your shot so that it doesn't distract or detract from the subject.

photography is a two-dimensional medium, we have to choose our composition carefully to conveys the sense of depth that was present in the actual scene. You can create depth in a photo by including objects in the foreground, middle ground and background. Another useful composition technique is overlapping, where you deliberately partially obscure one object with another. The human eye naturally recognises these layers and mentally separates them out, creating an image with more depth.
Because

DEPTH

The world is full of objects which make perfect natural frames, such as trees, archways and holes. By placing these around the edge of the composition you help to isolate the main subject from the outside world. The result is a more focused image which draws your eye naturally to the main point of interest.

FRAMING

CROPPING
Often a photo will lack impact because the main subject is so small it becomes lost among the clutter of its surroundings. By cropping tight around the subject you eliminate the background "noise", ensuring the subject gets the viewer's undivided attention.

EXPERIMENTATION
With the dawn of the digital age in photography we no longer have to worry about film processing costs or running out of shots. As a result, experimenting with our photos' composition has become a real possibility; we can fire off tons of shots and delete the unwanted ones later at absolutely no extra cost. Take advantage of this fact and experiment with your composition - you never know whether an idea will work until you try it.

COMPOSITION
In photography is far from a science, and as a result all of the "rules" above should be taken with a pinch of salt. If they don't work in your scene, ignore them; if you find a great composition that contradicts them, then go ahead and shoot it anyway. But they can often prove to be spot on, and are worth at least considering whenever you are out and about with your camera.

AMALI
Dalam kumpulan, pilih satu tema fotografi yang anda suka, ambil 10 keping gambar terbaik dan bentangkan dalam kumpulan. Gunakan pilihan kompisisi (rule of third, DOF, panning image,framing symmetry, balancing elements).

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