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DIRECTING

DR. ROSEMARIE I. SO

DIRECTING
refers
motivation, leadership.

to

the

process

of
and

communication,

MOTIVATION The word motivation comes from

the latin word movere which means to


move. Numerous definitions are given for

the term. Usually include or such words


as aim, desire, end, impulse, intention,

objective and purpose.

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Traditional Theory
The traditional theory of motivation evolved from the work of Frederick W. Taylor.

The Hierarchy of Needs


5th Level - Self Actualization

4th Level - Self Esteem


3rd Level - Love and Belongingness

2nd Level - Security


1st Level - Physiological

Achievement - Power Affiliation Theory


Closely related to the need hierarchy theory is the achievement power affiliation theory, primarily developed by David McClelland. This theory holds that all people have three needs:
1. a need to achieve, 2. a need for power, and 3. a need for affiliation.

The need for achievement is a desire to do something better more efficiently than it has been done before.

The need for power is basically a concern


of influencing people to be strong and

influential.
The need for affiliation is a need to be

liked to establish or maintain friendly


relations with others.

Motivation Maintenance Theory


Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Syndeman developed a theory of work motivation which has wide acceptance in management circles. The

theory is referred to by several names:


motivation maintenance theory

dual factor theory


motivation hygiene theory

McGregors Theory X & Y


Theory X views human beings as inherently lazy and hence must be motivated by force. Theory Y contends that external force or punishment is not the best way of motivating individuals

because they are capable of exercising


self direction and self control.

Achievement Theory
This need is not something inborn but it can be acquired through training and teaching the teaching the trainees to think and behave in terms of achievement.

Barnard Simons Theory of Equilibrium


Equal wages must be paid for

equal work.

Vrooms Preference Expectancy Theory


This theory is based on the premise that an individual assigns values to the outcome of each alternative course of action.

Reinforcement Theory
According to Skinner, the following are the components of motivated behaviour: 1. Stimulus: The environmental setting in which behaviour occurs (performance). 2. Response: The behaviour level itself. 3. Reinforcement: The reward given for good performance only.

Maturity Theory
Chris Argyrie proposed a theory of motivation on maturity immaturity. He contends that as people grow (psychologically) and mature they strive toward the highest level of need in Maslows need hierarchy: selfactualization.

Job Enlargement This involves redesigning of jobs so that related activities are added to those currently being performed. Job Enrichment

This involves putting meaning into


jobs.

COMMUNICATION
Communication is defined as the
transfer of information that is meaningful

to those involved in general, the


transmittal of understanding.

Types of Communication
In organizational situations, there

are

formal

communications,

informal

communications, communication between

groups,
upward,

interpersonal

communications,
lateral

downward,

communications and so on.

Grapevines
Many
communication

informal
also

paths
exist

of
in

organizations.

These informal channels

are generally referred to as grapevines.

Ways to Communicate
1. Informal talk or grapevine

communication.
2. Memoranda

3. Telephone calls
4. Interoffice News

5. Letters
6. Reports

7. Conferences / Conventions 8. Meetings

9. Bulletin Board Notices


10. Exhibits and Displays

11. Visual Aids

Communication Networks
Communication networks refer to

the

pictorial

depictions

of

informal

channels.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
1. Distance 2. Distortion

3. Semantics
4. Lack of Levelling

5. Lack of Trust
6. Inaccessibility

7. Lack of Clear Responsibilities 8. Personal Incompatibility

9. Refusal to Listen
10. Failure to Use Proper Media

11. Communication Gap


12. Lack of Direction

TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

1. Dictatorial leader

accomplishes

tasks through fear of penalties, and maintains a highly critical and negative attitude in relations with subordinates.

2. Autocratic
paternalistic

leader
role

assumes

which

forces

subordinates to rely on the leader for their satisfaction.

3. Democratic leader

depends not

only on their capabilities but encourage consultation of subordinates.

4. Laissez-faire

leader

depends

completely on subordinates to establish


their own goals and to make their own

decision.

Power, Authority, and Leadership

Power is the ability to command


or apply force.

Authority which exists in the


formal organization is the right to issue
directives and expend resources.

Leaders Attitudes Generally, it has been found that if the managers expectations are high,

productivity is likely to be high. On the


other hand; if the managers

expectations are low, productivity is


likely to be poor. McGregor called this

phenomenon the self-fulfilling prophecy.


It has been also Pygmalion in management.

MANAGEMENT SKILLS
Three basic types of skills which

are needed by all managers:

Technical skills is the ability to


perform a managers job.

Human skill is the ability to work with


others by getting along with them,

motivating them, and communicating


effectively with others.

Conceptual skill is the ability to


coordinate and integrate the entire

organizations interests and activities.

MANAGEMENT ROLES

Role is defined as an organized


set of behaviours belonging to an
identifiable job.

Interpersonal

Figurehead:

Manger represents the organizational unit in all matters of formality.

Liaison: Manager interacts with peers


and other people outside the organizational unit to gain information and favors.

Leader:

Manager provides guidance and motivation to the work group and also defines the atmosphere in which the work group will work.

Informational

Monitor: Manager serves as a receiver


and collector of information.

Disseminator:
special organizational unit.

Manager

transmits the

information

within

Spokesperson: Manager disseminates


the organizations information into its environment.

Decisional

Entrepreneur:
initiate change.

Mangers role is to

Disturbance handler:

the manager

must assume when the organization is threatened, such as conflicts between subordinates, the sudden departure of a subordinate, or the loss of an important customer.

Resource allocator: Manager decides


where the organization will expand its resources.

Negotiator:

Role

the

manager

assumes when the organization finds


itself in major non-routine negotiations

with other organizations or individuals.

MANAGERIAL GRID
In line with the Ohio State studies, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1964, 1969) developed a distinctive approach to the study of leadership: the managerial grid. They began their analysis by focusing on the two basic aspects of leader behavior concern for production (task orientation) and concern for people (consideration). Each of these dimensions was measured on a scale that ranges from one (low) to nine (high).