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Kedudukan & Gelagat Anda






KONSEP 1. The act or manner of governing, which would embrace markets, networks and hierarchies and any mixes of them found in particular context.

2. the means by which an activity or ensemble of activities is controlled or directed, such that it delivers an acceptable range of outcomes according to some established social standard. (Hirst, 2000: 24)

3. a system of rules which constitutes the form and process of the public sphere which emphasises the formal rather than the behavioral aspects of governance, (Martin,, 2000: 121)

4. how decisions actually are made and implemented rather than how they are formalized. (Campbell, et. al., 1985: 7)


Governan = kawalan/pengaruh

Perundangan: Akta; Ordinan2, Keputusan mahkamah, Peraturan2 pentadbiran

Extralegal Dasar; Nilai2; Etika/Moral; dan lain2 tekanan yang mempengaruhi pembuatan keputusan

Skop Governan (kawalan / pengaruh) amatlah luas: Dari governan oleh peraturan2 dan arahan, nilai-nilai etika dan moral sehinggalah governan oleh matlamat2 dan objektif2

Perbincangan hari ini akan memfokus kepada: - beberapa aspek governan extralegal pengurusan (dan kepemimpinan) anda dalam sesebuah organisasi mengikut kedudukan anda dalam struktur sistem pendidikan, selaras dengan rol anda sebagai pengurus dan pemimpin organisasi anda.

Tujuan perbincangan hari ini

Supaya anda: (i) memahami kepemimpinan yang memberi keyakinan kepada stakeholders; (ii) mengenali pengurusan yang terbaik dan boleh mengamalkannya nanti; (iii) memahami bagi mengelakkan dari berlakunya kelalaian, ketidakcekapan, penyalahgunaan kuasa dan sikap negatif;

(iv) peka terhadap teguran/aduan dan responsif terhadapnya serta bersedia memperbaiki keupayaan dan prestasi.

Aktiviti 1



Apakah tindakan anda selepas ini?

Aktiviti 2:


Legal Governance

1. Undang2 dan Peraturan2 Pendidikan,

dll. (Pendidikan: 8 Akta + ^20 Peraturan) 2. Keputusan2 Mahkamah 3. Prosedur2 pentadbiran (pengurusan, perkhidmatan, kewangan)

Dasar Kerajaan
1. Teras Pembangunan Dasar Wawasan Negara 2. Dasar2 Umum Kerajaan 3. Dasar2 Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia 4. Dasar2 dan Matlamat2 Pembangunan Pendidikan

Dasar2 & Matlamat2 Pendidikan

Matlamat2: (i) Mencapai Dasar Wawasan Negara (ii) Mencapai matlamat pembangunan pendidikan beteraskan kepada peningkatan: (a) akses kepada pendidikan (b) ekuiti dalam pendidikan (c) kualiti pendidikan (d) tahap kecekapan dan keberkesanan pengurusan pendidikan

Governan:Kecekapan dan Keberkesanan Pengurusan Pend.

1. Surat-Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas (bersiri) 2. Surat-surat siaran biasa 3. Surat Pekeliling Kewangan (bersiri dan tidak bersiri); Pekeliling Perbendaharaan 4. Surat-Surat Pekeliling Perkhidmatan 5. Lain-lain 6. Etika dalam Pengurusan dan Kepemimpinan


Apakah tujuan kesemua legal dan administrative governance tersebut?

Nilai2 Etika: Pengurusan dan Kepemimpinan

Pengurusan perlu berlaku dalam paradigma sistem nilai masyarakat di mana seseorang itu bekerja.

Etika / moral: (i) rules of conduct (ii) distinction of right and wrong Social ethic = morally legitimate the pressures of society against the individual.

Peringkat Etika dalam Pengurusan

1. Peringkat Etika Organisasi 2. Peringkat Etika Individu

Extralegal Governan: Peringkat Organisasi

1. Teori Organisasi (Kawalan Birokrasi) (i) Structural & non-structural (birokratik) (ii) Teori Agensi dan mekanismanya

Governan Birokratik
Governan struktur: (i) Hieraki (pembezaan menegak) (ii) Pengkhususan / kepakaran (pembezaan mendatar) (iii) Integrasi: (a) Struktur: formalization, pemusatan; penyerataan; span of control

(b) integrasi bukan struktur: budaya; teams; sistem maklumat; jawatankuasa2

Principal-Agency Theory dan Transaction Cost Economics

Teori Agensi:
Hubungan antara majikan dengan pekerja / agen Ada contractual agreement antara kedua pihak Majikan (principal) membeli kemahiran pekerja untuk mencapai matlamatnya. mahu usaha2 maksima dari pekerja (efisyensi)

Perjanjian kontrak ini menetapkan duties and obligations pihak pekerja terhadap majikan Pekerja pula dibayar, dll.

Teori agensi mengawal pekerja melalui kawalan peraturan Kawalan birokratik

Transaction Cost Economics:

Fokus kepada persoalan bagaimana memaksimakan keefisyenan transaksi. Tempat operasi Kos2 lain Kawalan birokratik

Isu: Moral hazard Agen mengelak dari kerja dan tanggungjawabnya

Administrative Ethics
Relevant values in deciding the right thing to do: 1. Responsiveness 2. Flexibility 3. Honesty 4. Accountability 5. Competence BERSIH, CEKAP, AMANAH, TELUS

Teori2 Nilai Etika



Moral laws; Universal law

ANTINOMIAN: Incremental model; Equilibrium model


Ethical judgement [good or bad]

1. Legalsitic: moral laws; acceptance of universal law: - ignores personality - utilitarian philosophy: good = happiness A good act is one that results in the greatest happiness for the largest number of people.

2. Antinomian (denial of moral law): (i) Incremental model: Manager makes decisions that improve the situation better than it was before.

(ii) Equilibrium model: Manager is an important umpire: to maintain the equilibrium relationships between the welfare of various groups affected by managerial decision.

Situational Ethic
(iii) Situational ethic: Ethical judgement: - Rightness: The right thing to do = decision is based on the argument against the action. - Justice: fair and just love - Goodness: decision helps other people is a good decision

Bureaucratic organizations do not happily accept maverick (nonconformist) behavior; they prefer managers who conform, who follow the rules and who agree with the establishment.

Situational ethic
If the human being is the center of all existence, social institutions must hold the well-being of people to be all- important.
William A. Evans (1981: 172)


What is good for man is good for the organization.

Work organizations will have to adapt to this new understanding or morality inasmuch as their structure, leadership, and tasks are consonant with the workers growth and development as a person. Fitrah

Public interest
[Managers] make decisions that are the product of a desire to optimize the congruent benefits to all elements in the system: consumer, employees, shareholders, stakeholders, [consider all these elements, if not one or more of these elements will suffer]

Grover Starling (2002). Managing the Public Sector. the administrator should make decisions based on the best interest of some collective, overarching community or national good rather than on the narrower interest of a small self-serving group. [p.164]


Responsible for people in general and cannot escape from social and public responsibility.

Ultimately managers has to be held accountable for the actions of those who answer to him.

Ethic, Morality
(i) Ethics: refers to rules that are otheroriented - pay attention to another human being (ii) Morality: refers to socially accepted rules; the focus is on self interest

(iii) Value: refers to core beliefs

Domains of Ethical Theories

1. MORAL CONDUCT: 1.1 Teleological theories - Stress the Consequences of / outcomes of LEADERS ACTIONS

- 3 approaches to making decisions regarding moral conduct (i) Ethical Egoism (ii) Utilitarianism [the greatest good for the greatest number] (iii) Altruism - Based firmly on duty: one ought to do

- Focuses on reasons for doing an

action: pain or pleasure and outcomes - Create happiness in others (pleasure) - an act is right, if it brings about more pleasure than pain or prevent pain (outcomes)

Self-interest vs for Others

High Ethical Egoism Concern for self-interest Utilitarianism Altruism Low Concern others High


The responsibility of a leader is to decide wisely on the consequences of his / her actions.

Characteristics of an ethical / moral leader: (i) concern for others: empathy; paying attention to other, (ii) love (iii) transcendent [melebihi segala2nya] (iv) a moral leader is the one who leads by action and not words

1.2 DUTY - Emphasize the Deontological Theories duty or rules governing leaders actions - Focus on the Actions of the leader: (i) GOOD / BAD (ii) Moral obligations and responsibilities: DO THE RIGHT THING

- Telling the truth; - keeping promises; - being fair; - respecting others e.g. keeping information to himself is considered as unethical and immoral. - the right of others - decieve

1.3. PERSON / DISPOSITION Virtue-based theories - virtues are rooted in the heart / disposition - A moral person: self-control, honesty, fairness, justice, modesty, generosity, perseverance, public-spiritedness, benevolent, integrity, truthfulness, humility,

Ones ethical posture depends on ones values commitments; Not only a process of decision-making, but interrelated with the individuals world view and value growth; People regress because their needs (lower-order needs) are not met Values and ethical growth are dependent on skills development,

An ethical educational leader is more than a person capable of moral decisionmaking. oriented towards the good. Major concern: to develop ethical sensitivity in himself and within the organization. People and institutions should develop as harmoniously and integrated as possible.

Ethical Values

A Framework of Analyzing Governance

External Formal Internal Judiciary Legislature

Agency head Whistle-blower

Citizen participation


Interest groups Media Professional codes


Public interest

Ethical analysis
People its serves

Process of Ethical Analysis

Proses Analisis Etika Dalam Membuat Keputusan (Model Grover Starling, 2002) Nilai Teras Anda Definisi Isu Kutipan Maklumat/Data

Isu Moral Dikenalpasti

Penjanaan Alternatif

Falsafah Moral

Analisis Alternatif Analisis setiap alternatif dari segi pendekatan etika Keputusan

+ Pengalaman lalu

Penjelasan (Keputusan)

Adakah saya akan dikritik

Gut check



Ethical Leadership
Leadership concept (i) Process and not position; (ii) Relationships (leader-follower relationship is central to ethical leadership) (iii) Influence (iv) work voluntarily (v) impact on the lives of those being led

Concept of ethical leadership

(i) Heifetzs Perspective (1994): Leaders help followers to confront conflict (conflicting values that emerge in rapidly changing work environment and social structures) and to effect changes from conflict.

(ii) Burns Perspective (1978) - Leaders emphasize on followers needs, values, and morals. - Leaders move followers to higher standard of moral responsibility [transformational leadership] - The responsibility of the leader = to help followers assess their own values and needs, in order to move to a higher

(iii) Greenleafs Perspective (1970): - leaders should be attentive to the concerns of their followers and empathize them - they should take care of them and nurture them - emphasize listening, empathy and unconditional acceptance of others

Principles of ethical leadership [Northouse, P.G. (2004)

Respect others Serve others

Build community

Show justice Manifest honesty

Leadership Ethic Behaviors (Kanungo & Mendonca)

Helping concern; (benefits) for self (+) Apathetic Egotism Utilitarian / mutual Hedonistic Egotism altruism

Helping concern; (benefits) for others (+)

Genuine / moral altruism

Harming concern; (cost) for others (-) Vindictive/selfdestructive egotism

Harming concern; (cost) for self (-)

Altruistic/ism = motivated by a concern for the benefits of others and a disregard for his own personal cost (benefiting others) Egotism = motivated by a concern for benefits and costs to themselves and disregard for the benefits and costs to others (benefiting self)

Effective Leader
Effective organizational leader role as one that fundamentally involves moving the organization from the status quo to a future desired goal.

It involves the following processes: (i) Environmental scanning [SWOT analysis]; (ii) Formulation and articulation of an idealized vision; (iii) Implementation (motivate followers) What types of motivation required?

This requires a leader who (i) has a moral altruism will (ii) considers the followers needs and aspirations (charismatic) (iii) shares vision with his / her followers; (iv) is willing to take the risks (v) is motivated by a passionate and sincere care and concern with a deep and abiding respect for others.

(vi) understands & motivates followers; (vii) engages in modeling / exemplary acts; innovative that often involves great personal risks and sacrifices.

Ethical Leadership

Refer handout

Leaders with motivation of the socialoriented = altruistic motive: - warm & friendly - concern for others - sensitive to the followers feelings and to conform their wishes.

Avoidance affiliation = concern with the maintenance of relationships, and a fear of rejection and being left alone (selfish love) - motive: to demonstrate their importance to them; to develop their own self-worth - desire: is to be liked

Approach affiliation = concern with the establishment of love relationships - motivated primarily by a genuine interest in others

Affiliative assurance relationships: - emphasize relationships to protect themselves - affiliative assurance relationship produce low employee morale and a defensive feeling.

Power as the source of influence: (i) Personal power need = a leader is motivated by power for personal aggrandizement; use position power [selfinterest]; demands loyalty and compliance; insensitive to the needs of the follower

(ii) Institutional power need = a leader is motivated by power to serve the purpose of the organization; expertise. [subordinate their personal interest to that of the organization

Expert power
The source of institutional power is the expertise of the leader, not position; - to serve and help followers - places the interest of the others before and might even be at the cost to self. [This type of leader is likely to be more effective than those high on personal/position power]

(i) The need for achievement motive: - self-oriented / benefit to self; - views organizational resources and support primarily in terms of their own objectives; - motivated by personal achievement. - transactional leaders (coercive, legal, reward, power base

(ii) The need for social achievement motive (altruistic motive): - concerns for others - initiate efforts that primarily benefited others and interest of others. - Charismatic / transformational leaders - Servant leaders - Moral leaders

Ethical Behaviors
Honesty Integrity Fairness Loyalty Kindness Courage Generosity Altruism Unselfishness Love Truth Tolerance Responsibility Prudence

Compassion: Take care of others General beneficence (dont bring misery to others) Frugality (not wasting resources)

Nilai2 Islam
Khalifah Ibadah Amanah Fitrah Musyawarah Be kind Justice Tell the truth

Codes of Ethics
1. Professional 2. Tatacara Profesion Perguruan Malaysia

Ethical Leadership
A leader is best when people barely know he exists. Not so good when people obey and acclaim him. Worse when they despise him. If you fail to honour people, they fail to honour you.

But of a good leader, who talks little, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say We did this ourselves! Lao-Tzu

Ethical Leaders
1. SERVE OTHERS: Altruistic behaviors: mentoring, empowerment, team building e.g doctor: his duty is to help others attend to others making decision: beneficial to others

2. ARE JUST [control to decision making] - treat subordinates equal fair & just

3. HONEST - tell the truth - honest

4. BUILD COMMUNITY - leaders cannot impose their will - transformational leadership - cares everyone 5. RESPECT OTHERS - never treated as the means to anothers personal goal - treat other peoples decision & values with respect.

Best practices

List some of the best practices in the management of your organization / institution.

Aktiviti 3

Sediakan satu pelan tindakan dan nyatakan governannya sekali.

Getting Support from Your Boss

Middle and lower managers may be totally committed to the philosophy of situational ethics; they may judge situations on their merits and come to conclusion that offer the optimal benefit to corporate interests, to their colleagues, to customers, and to society at large; they may minimize conflict, and they

may satisfy their own criteria; but in the final judgment, unless they convince their boss and their bosss boss, and so right up through the management hierarchy, until the executive is convinced of the rightness of the action, their situational decision counts for nothing except their own ethical satisfaction. Evan, W.A. (1981: 174)

Some Principles