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The Technology Integration Planning Model

Mary Monroe

An Overview of the TIP Model


This model gives teachers a general approach to addressing challenges involved in integrating technology into teaching. The TIP Model provides a helpful guide on procedures and issues to address (p. 52).

An Overview of the TIP Model


Each of the models five phases outlines a set of planning and implementation steps that help ensure technology use will be efficient and successful in meeting needs (p. 52).
Phase 1 Determine the Relative Advantage

Phase 2 Decide on Objectives

Phase 3 Design Integration Strategies

Phase 4 Prepare the Instructional Environment

Phase 5 Evaluate and Revise Integration Strategies

Phase 1: Determine Relative Advantage


Recognize relative advantage Phase 1 Questions
What is the problem I am addressing?
Do not focus on technologies Look for evidence

Do technology-based methods offer a solution with sufficient relative advantages?

Phase 1: Determine Relative Advantage


Estimate the impact Consider the required effort and expense

Phase 2: Decide on Objectives and Assessments


Example outcomes, objectives, and assessments
Higher achievement, cooperative work, attitude, and improved outcome

Phase 2 Questions
What outcomes do I expect from using the new methods?
Focus on results, not process

Phase 2: Decide on Objectives and Assessments


Make a statement observable and measurable

What are the best ways of assessing these outcomes?


Use written test to assess skill achievement outcomes Use evaluation criteria checklists to assess complex tasks or products Use rubrics to assess complex tasks or products

Phase 2: Decide on Objectives and Assessments


Use Likert scale-type surveys or semantic differentials to assess attitude outcomes Use observation instruments to measure frequency of behaviors

Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies


Deciding on teaching/learning methods
Use directed and constructivist strategies

Phase 3 Questions
What kinds of instructional methods are needed in light of content objectives and student characteristics?

Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies


Content approach Grouping approach
Whole class, individual, pairs, and small group

How can technology best support these methods?


Refer back to Phase 2

How can I prepare students adequately to use technologies?


Prepare and teach students before graded product

Phase 4: Prepare the Instructional Environment


Essential conditions for effective technology uses
Adequate hardware, software, and media Time to use resources Special needs of students Planning for technology use

Phase 4 Questions

Phase 4: Prepare the Instructional Environment


What equipment, software, media, and materials will I need to carry out the instructional strategies?
Computers Copies of software and media Access to peripherals Handouts and other materials

How should resources be arranged to support instruction and learning?

Phase 4: Prepare the Instructional Environment


Access by students with disabilities Privacy and safety issues

What planning is required to make sure technology resources work well?


Troubleshooting Test-runs and backup plans

Phase 5: Evaluate and Revise Integration Strategies


Evaluation issues
Were objectives achieved? What do students say? Could improving instructional strategies or the environment improve results? Have I integrated technology well?

Phase 5 Questions

Phase 5: Evaluate and Revise Integration Strategies


How well has the technology integration strategy worked?
Achievement and attitude data Students comments

What could be improved to make it work better?


Scheduling Technical skills Efficiency