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An ancient religion and philosophy based

on the teachings of Buddha.


• Realized that this world is full of
suffering and was in search of
lasting happiness. At the age of 29
he left the luxuries of the palace,
retired to the forest and followed a
life of meditation.

• Attained enlightenment under the


Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India.

• Spent rest of his life, teaching others


to realize what he himself had
discovered.
Philosophy
Buddhism inherits principles of dharma, karma, ahimsa, rebirth and
nirvana (moksha) from Hinduism.

• Dukha-Satya - Truth of suffering. • Marga-Satya - Truth of path.


Life is suffering. The eight fold path.

• Nirodha-Satya - Truth of cessation. • Samudaya-Satya - Truth of the


Suffering can be ended if its causes, cause.
desire and ignorance are removed. Suffering is caused by desire (Tanha)
and ignorance (Avijja).
The Eight-Fold Path

Right
Knowledge
Right Right
Meditation Resolve

Right
Right
Speech
Mindfulness

Right
Right
Conduct
Effort
Right
Livelihood
• Dharma is understood as the practice (paripatti) of the truth. To
take refuge in the Dharma is to take refuge in Buddha.

• Karma is intentional action, physical, verbal or mental. Good


karma brings happiness, bad brings suffering.

• Avijja and Tanha is ignorance or not knowing the true nature of


things and craving are the two root causes of Karma.

• Cycle of Rebirth – We are born and reborn in six realms of


exhistence based on one’s previous Karma.

• Nirvana (Enlightenment) – To go beyond the cycle and achieving


blissful state is Nirvana.
Budhist Scriptures are called the Tripitaka or the “Three Baskets”

•Suttapitaka – Budha’s sermons

•Vinayapitaka – Monastic rules

•Abhidhammapitaka – Early philosophical treatises


Three Main Schools of Buddhism

• Theravada or Hinayana – Sri Lanka,


Thailand, Burma, Cambodia

• Mahayana – China, Japan, Vietnam, Korea

• Vajrayana – Tibet, Mongolia, Japan


• Variety of practices aid in the journey to
enlightenment. As Buddhism spread from
India across many parts of Asia, it absorbed
many local religious beliefs and traditions.
Therefore practices differ widely in various
parts of the world.
• Five Rules to abstain from: killing,
stealing, sexual misconduct lying, taking
intoxicants such as alcoholic drinks

• Meditation: Various types of meditation in


various traditions

• Chanting: Hymns of homage to Buddha,


refuge in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha etc.