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Homeless youth, especially unaccompanied homeless youth, fall squarely within the highrisk profile for trafficking victims

Statistics reveal that runaway and homeless youth are targeted frequently by traffickers Schools are being used as recruiting grounds

One of the fastest growing and most profitable criminal industries in the world An issue of international and domestic concern
Trafficking of minors in other countries Trafficking of foreign youth into the United States Trafficking of domestic youth throughout the United States

Polaris Project: http://www.polarisproject.org/humantrafficking/overview

Most common forms:

Trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation (~79% globally) Trafficking for the purposes of forced labor (~18% globally) http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/humantrafficking/global-report-on-trafficking-inpersons.html

Among children and teens living on the streets in the United States, involvement in commercial sex activity is a problem of epidemic proportion. Girls living on the street may trafficked locally or become entangled in organized crime networks where they are trafficked nationally Average age of becoming a victim of sex trafficking:

Girls: 12-13 Boys and transgender youth: 11-13

http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/lawenforcementbulletin/march_2011/human_sex_trafficking

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA)

Sex Trafficking: The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act Commercial Sex Act: Any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA)

Severe Forms of Trafficking: Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age

Full text: http://www.state.gov/docume nts/organization/10492.pdf

2010 Congressional Testimony, NCMEC President


Estimates vary between 100,000-300,000 youth victims of CSEC each year in the USA The number of 10-17 year olds involved in CSEC in the United States each year likely exceeds 250,000; 60% of these victims are runaway, thrownaway, or homeless youth Estimates that as many as 1/3 of teen runaways/thrownaways will become involved in prostitution within 48 hours of leaving home http://www.missingkids.com/missingkids/servlet/Ne wsEventServlet?LanguageCountry=en_US&PageId=4312

Street prostitution Escort services Pornography Strip clubs Massage parlors Phone sex lines Private parties Gang-based prostitution Cyber market (craigslist, backpage.com, social media) Truck stops

Individual Pimps Gangs and criminal networks Brothel and fake massage parlor owners Intimate partners Family members People from all walks of life

Traffickers are masters of manipulation and exploiting vulnerabilities


Target at-risk populations Threats Physical harm Emotional manipulation Trauma bond Brainwashing

Any child may be trafficked, but a profile of a high-risk youth has emerged

Poverty History of sexual or physical abuse History of family or individual substance abuse Loss of a parent or caregiver Running away/being thrown away Lack of a support system Special education needs

The themes of trauma, abandonment, and disruption, begun in childhood, are central to the narratives of adolescent girls trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. Girls describe having had a profound sense of being alone without resources. http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/humantraffickin g/litrev/

Unexplained school absences/irregular school attendance Chronic running away References frequent travel to other cities Bruising/signs of physical trauma Signs of emotional distress, including depression, withdrawn behavior, and anxiety

Unusual attachment to cellphone Strange tattoos Inappropriate dress Sudden change in material possessions References to sexual situations beyond what is appropriate for their age A reputation A noticeably older boyfriend

Educate staff Implement and enforce a policy for reporting


Partner with law enforcement Partner with child welfare

Train counselors/social workers on how to work with CSEC victims Offer a developmentally appropriate prevention curriculum to students

FBI | Innocence Lost: www.fbi.gov/aboutus/investigate/vc_majorthefts/cac/innocencelost Department of Justice | Human Trafficking: www.justice.gov/archive/olp/human_trafficking. htm US ED | Trafficking Fact Sheet: www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oese/oshs/facts heet.html NCHE | Trafficking: www.serve.org/nche/ibt/trafficking.php FAIR Girls (DC): www.fairgirls.org GEMS (NYC): www.gems-girls.org

http://archive.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/about/form.htm