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Mechanisms of Metabolism: Physiological Effects

FCS 4753 Spring 2005

Session $"tcome
% list at least 2 n"tritional implications &"e to the physiological effects of the chronic alcohol "se on of the systems presente&

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'ffecte& Systems
% Central ner(o"s system# incl"&ing the brain % Circ"latory system % )mm"ne system % S*elto+m"sc"lar % ,epro&"cti(e % -igesti(e
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Physiological Effects: Central .er(o"s System


% Motor / cogniti(e &ysf"nction 0 Slo1s reaction time# hin&ers coor&ination % 'mnesia# hall"cinations# &"lls senses# &epression# &ementia# % Polyne"ritis 0 shrin*ing of brain cells as they &ie from the effects of the alcohol 2relate& to (itamin ! &eficiencies3
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'lcohol4s Effect on the !rain


5 Corte6 2 Emotion+ go(erning centers 3 Centers that go(ern m"sc"lar control 4 -eep centers that control respiration an& heartbeat
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Physiological Effects: Circ"latory System


% 'bsorbe& &irectly into bloo&stream % Car&iomyopathy 0 More common in men an& 'frican 'mericans 1ith onset age of 40 0 8ea&s to congesti(e heart fail"re % Coronary artery &isease

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Physiological Effects: )mm"ne System


% Protein# !7# an& 9n &eficiency 0 -epresses f"nction % )mpairment to bone marro1 0 -ecreases :!C % 8i(er &amage 0 )mpairs imm"noglob"lin pro&"ction
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Physiological Effects: S*elto+M"sc"lar System


% Calci"m mobili<ation from bones % M"scle 1asting &"e to m"scle being "se& as an energy so"rce % Myopathy# or m"scle pain

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Physiological Effects: Male ,epro&"cti(e System


% 8o1ers sperm co"nt>possible infertility % ?estic"lar atrophy % -ecrease& testosterone# increase& estrogen % )mpotence &esire performance

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Physiological Effects: Female ,epro&"cti(e System


% % % % % 'menorrhea )nfertility )ncrease& ris* of breast cancer )ncrease& se(erity of PMS symptoms Fetal alcohol syn&rome

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'lcohol an& @o"

% 8ist factors infl"encing alcohol absorption

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Physiological>Metabolic: Mo"th
% % % % -eficient care an& neglect ?ra"ma 2fighting3 )nflammation Perio&ontal &isease 0 A"m infection# impaire& healing# hypersensiti(ity

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Physiological Effects: Esophag"s


% )rritates an& inflames % -amages lo1er esoghageal spinctor 0 .a"sea an& (omiting# chronic heartb"rn % Enlarge& (eins 1hich can r"pt"re &"ring (omiting 0 esophageal (arices % )mpairs peristalsis
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Physiological Effects: Stomach


% 'lcoholic gastritis 0 painf"l# b"rning sensation % )nterferes 1ith gastric aci& secretions % )mpaire& lining 0 peptic "lcers# internal blee&ing % )nflammation
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Physiological Effects: )ntestines


% % % % % % ;0B of alcohol absorbe& here 8actase synthesis is &ecrease& -"o&enal+gastric refl"6>"lcer )ncrease& permeability of lining -iarrhea 2Cr"m r"ns43 Dyper>hypomotility of n"trients
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'ncillary -igesti(e $rgans

% Pancreas % 8i(er % Ei&neys

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Physiological Effects: Pancreas


% Pancreatitis 0 pancreatic en<ymes begin to &igest the pancreas 0 se(ere "pper ab&ominal pain 0 (omiting 0 ab&ominal m"scle spasms

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Physiological Effects: 8i(er


% )mpaire& &eto6 res"lts in 0 Fatty aci& synthesis 0 )mpaire& gl"coneogenesis 0 )mpaire& protein synthesis % )nefficient "se of calories

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8i(er -ysf"nction
Fatty li(er 'c"te Depatitis Cirrhosis

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Physiological Effects: Ei&neys


% S"ppresse& anti&i"retic hormone % )ncrease& "rinary o"tp"t b"t &ecrease& o"tp"t of so&i"m an& potassi"m % )ncrease& ins"lin secretions &"e to CD$ in alcohol % 8o1ere& le(els of parathyroi& hormone % )nflammation of nephrons % FreF"ent infections
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