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DNA

(Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

The code of life or "How to make protein"

DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid

RNA = ribonucleic acid

Nucleotide
1.Sugar =
deoxyribose or ribose

2. Phosphate 3.Base: either


A = Adenine T = Thymine G = Guanine C = Cytosine U = Uracil
This is a DNA Nucleotide

DOUBLE HELIX MODEL

Discovered by Watson and Crick.


Chargaffs rules: each species has a unique ratio and all members of a species has the same ratio

A = T, G = C

DNA Structure
Double Helix
3 D view animation

DNA Shape: confirmation with X-ray crystallography


Twisted Ladder

Rosalind Franklin

Nucleotides, Hydrogen bonds, 3 vs 5 and antiparallel. what dos all that of mean to DNA structure???

DNA vs. RNA Nucleotides CAN YOU SEE THE DIFFERENCES?

DNA
1. Deoxyribose sugar 2. Double Helix 3. In nucleus
(& mitochondria)

mRNA
Ribose sugar
mRNA: Single stranded
tRNA: a Unit- looks like cloverleaf rRNA: sm &lg round units

3. Leaves nucleus to cytoplasm/ rough ER

4. Permanent 5. Thymine 6. Instructions

4. Temporary

5. Uracil
6. Messenger

m = messenger mRNA

RNA types
r = ribosomal rRNA

t = transfer tRNA

How many types of DNA are there?


ONE!

DNA REPLICATION
/ / / /

WHAT is it? Copying ALL the DNA in a cell WHERE is it done? Nucleus WHY is it done? Make copies for daughter cells WHEN is it done?
S phase of interphase- right before cell division (mitosis or meiosis)

DNA Replication(animation)
1. Unwinding the double helix 2. Unzipping the DNA 3. Add in new nucleotides complimentary to each half 4. Moves in opposite directions

Two processes: Transcription- getting the instructions


Translation- using the instructions
THE GOAL:

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

WHAT IS THE JOB OF mRNA?


Get Instructions
Made when an RNA polymerase reads the gene (gets order of nucleotides) from DNA = this is the order of amino acids so it tells=
how to make protein!

WHAT IS the Job of tRNA?


Carry amino acids into the Ribosome, Hook onto the mRNA in right order to attach the amino acid to the growing protein chain

mRNA transcription (animation)


1.In nucleus: DNA unwinds at one spot 2. RNA polymerase attaches to DNA 3. Matches RNA nucleotides to DNA nucleotides 3. Sends new mRNA out of nucleus

Translation (animation)
Also called protein synthesis In ribosome in cytroplasm or ER 1.The ribosome attaches to mRNA ( 2 parts) 2.1st tRNA attaches at the P site at the start CODON. 3.Its job is to bring amino acids to drop off in order.

4.Amino acids link together by peptide bonds to make a polypepetide

Translation continued
Translocation: the ribosome moves and the prroces repeats until a STOP

codon is reached.

5. The polypeptide chain goes to golgi to be modified.


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REVIEW Cover your notes and look only at this diagram- discuss these with a partner
What is the role of the mRNA? What is the role of tRNA? What happens between 2 tRNAs sitting next to each other? What is being made? Where is this happening? What is this process called? What does DNA have to do with all this?

Interpreting the code using mRNA codons

Mutations: What are they really?


A. Gene Mutation = change to DNA code
o Point:

changes a single amino acid HOW? a. delete a whole code (3 nucleotides); b. change one nucleotide; c. insert a whole code

This can be harmless or somewhat bad or really bad (ex: sickle cell anemia)

Gene Mutation (cont)


o Frameshift:

shift the reading of the DNA so all the amino acids after that are different

HOW? delete or insert 1 or 2 nucleotides

B. Chromosomal Mutation= BIG change to chromosomeinvolves many genes all at once and whole sectrions of chromosomes

Chromosomal mutations

Mutagens= cause the mutation


Environmental (ex: asbestos, smoke) Viral (insert their DNA and mess up code) Xrays (ex: UV radiation, nuclear radiation) Chemicals (ex: pollutants, industrial, dyes)

NOTE: most gene mutations are random errors occuring in the code during replication

IN THE NEWS!!

Quadruple DNA!

Seems to abnormal replication and be involved with cancer mutationsexciting new research area

REVIEW: A. Diagram a DNA molecule-see directions in notes- do without looking at notes! B. Use the word bank for the key terms to match to definitions- do alone and then check with a partner- do without looking at the notes!

Important terms
1.Code = a word in DNA language; 3 nucleotides, code for an amino acid 2.Gene = A sentence made of many
nucleotides that codes for a particular protein (the building blocks of the cell) proteins are made of long chains of amino acids arranged from a possible 20 different kinds of amino acids

Important terms
1. DNA 2. Nucleotide 3. CODE 4. Gene 5. Chromosome, 46, 23 6. Double helix 7. Codon 8. Anticodon 9. Transcription 10.Translation 11.Translocation 12.Complimentary 13.Replication

THE BIG PICTURE

LETS PULL IT ALL TOGETHER


Flow Chart activityThe CENTRAL DOGMA

Ghost of slides from past

Translation
In ribosome Also called protein synthesis 1.Small part of ribosome attaches to mRNA 2.1st tRNA attaches at the P site. Large ribosome part attaches.

3. The 2nd tRNA lands in the A site. Ready to start creating a protein.

4. tRNA brings in amino acid to ribosome 5. Amino acids link together by peptide bond and protein chain is moved over to 2nd tRNA.

Translation continued
6. Translocation

7. Repeat until a STOP codon is reached 8. Releasing factor 9. The polypeptide chain goes to golgi to be modified.
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