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Dr. M.K. Herliansyah, ST. MT.

Program Studi Teknik Industri Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada 2010

Design for X Topics

Design for Manufacturing

Design for Assembly

Design for Production

Design for Recycling/Disposal

Design for Life Cycle Prototyping Design for Automation

Gathering DFM Information

Design documents: Sketches, Drawings, Spesifikasi produk, dan Alternatif-alternatif desain. Pemahaman dan informasi detil mengenai

proses produksi dan perakitan/assembly Perkiraan:

manufacturing costs, production volumes, dan ramp-up timing.

DFM Method
Memperkirakan manufacturing costs.
Mengurangi biaya-biaya untuk

mempersiapkan/pembuatan components. Mengurangi biaya-biaya untuk proses perakitan/assembly. Mengurangi biaya-biaya pendukung proses production. Mempertimbangkan dampak/pengaruh DFM decisions pada faktor-faktor yang lain.

DFM Method
Proposed Design Estimate The Manufacturing Cost Reduce the Cost of Components

Reduce the Cost of Assembly

Reduce the Cost of Supporting Production

Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on Other Factors Recompute the Manufacturing Costs N
Good Enough ?

Acceptable Design

Estimate the Manufacturing Costs

Equipment Information Tooling

Raw Materials Labor Purchased Components

Manufacturing System

Finished Goods





Manufacturing Costs Defined

Menghitung seluruh pengeluaran untuk

input system (sebagai contoh: pembelian komponen-komponen, energi, raw materials, dan lain-lain) dan pengeluaran untuk penanganan limbah yang dihasilkan oleh sistem.

Elements of the Manufacturing Cost of a Product

Manufacturing Cost







Equipment and Tooling


Indirect Allocation

Raw Material



Manufacturing Cost of a Product

Component Costs (komponen-komponen dari produk yang dibuat)
Komponen-komponen yang dibeli dari supplier Custom parts yang dibuat didalam shop floor-nya sendiri atau shop floor para supplier sesuai dengan spesifikasi desain dari manufacturers

Assembly Costs (labor, equipment, & tooling) Overhead Costs (all other costs)
Support Costs (material handling, quality assurance, purchasing, shipping, receiving, facilities, etc.) Indirect Allocations (tidak berhubungan secara langsung dengan suatu particular product tetapi harus dibayar dalam proses bisnis)

Fixed Costs vs. Variable Costs

Fixed Costs ditentukan terlebih dahulu

dalam suatu jumlah tertentu tanpa memperhatikan jumlah unit yang diproduksi (i.e. setting up the factory work area or cost of an injection mold) Variable Costs ditentukan secara langsung dalam jumlah yang proporsional dengan jumlah unit yang diproduksi (i.e. cost of raw materials)

Reduce the Cost of Components

1. Understand the Process Constraints and 2.

4. 5.

Cost Drivers Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing Steps Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for the Part Process Standardize Components and Processes Adhere to Black Box Component Procurement

1. Understand the Process Constraints and Cost Drivers

Redesign costly parts with the same performance while avoiding high manufacturing costs. Work closely with design engineersraise awareness of difficult operations and high costs.

2. Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing Steps

Reduce the number of steps of the

production process
Will usually result in reduce costs

Eliminate unnecessary steps. Use substitution steps, where applicable. Analysis Tool Process Flow Chart and

Value Stream Mapping

3. Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for the Part Process

Economies of Scale As production volume increases, manufacturing costs usually decrease. Fixed costs divided among more units. Variable costs are lower since the firm can use more efficient processes and equipment.

4. Standardize Components and Processes

Economies of Scale The unit cost of a

component decreases as the production volume increases. Standard Componentscommon to more than one product Analysis tools group technology and mass customization

5. Adhere to Black Box Component Procurement

Black boxonly give a description of what

the component has to do, not how to achieve it Successful black box design requires clear definitions of the functions, interfaces, and interactions of each component.

What is DFM?
DFM is product design considering manufacturing requirements DFM is the first step in which a team approach is taken to develop the product DFM is an umbrella which covers a variety of tools and techniques to accomplish a manufacturable product

Why DFM?
Lower development cost Shorter development time Faster manufacturing start of build Lower assembly and test costs Higher quality

How do all the pieces fit together?
The objective of DFM is to identify product concepts that are easy to manufacture Focus on component design for ease of manufacture and assembly Integrate manufacturing to ensure the best match of needs and requirements. DFM in industry is typically divided into 2 main activities: A team which will be responsible for the product development and delivery. (cross functional team: ME, EE, MFG., CE, PE, Quality) The tools and methods to enable DFM that ensure the design meets the objectives.

Manufacturing Today
Global Competition
Trade barriers have been removed (NAFTA) Must compete with the best from all over the world Japan, Europe, India, Mexico, etc Infrastructure's forming off shore

Quality Requirements
ISO 9000 Six Sigma (Motorola Inc)

Product Cycles
Every generation is faster Rate of change is increasing

Costs decrease every year (customers expect costs to go down) Performance increasing every year

DFM Typical Approach

Product Development Process
Conceptual DESIGN and development Product optimization, TEST TOOL BUILD (ease of assembly) LAUNCH, ramp, ship, and deliver
start finish

Product Development team making it happen!!

- Product requirements and deliverables - DFM tools and methods

Product Team
Product requirements and deliverables Collaborative cross functional team (ME, EE, MFG, Test, Quality, etc.). Not designed in a vacuum Uses DFM tools and methods



Tool Build


Product Development Steps

DFM Product Considerations

Product Considerations
Ergonomics Safety Pollution Recycling Shock/vibration Temperature


Process and Tooling

Cycle time Quality Ease of Assembly Ease of Testing Rework Shipping and Handling Tooling Costs

Depth of product line Customization Test requirements

Partnerships Supplier tolerance capability Merging mechanical sub-assemblies Costs

DFM Tools and Methodology

Tools and Methodologies
Design For Assembly (DFA), (IBM experience) Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), (Sun example) Taguchi Method, (Hitachi experience) Value Analysis--Value Engineering (HP example) Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Going to the Gemba (Hitachi) Group Technology, (IBM example) Cost management and optimization, SPC, Six-Sigma (Motorola), TQC, etc

DFA Systems
Boothroyd Dewhurst DFM & A

Munro & Assoc. (Design Prophet/Profit)


Product Design Today

Development Cycle Endless engineering changes Non standard parts have long lead times Quality Designed and thrown over the wall Lower due to more parts, manual processes, and untested parts
Customer configuration management

Cost Higher due to unique designs and specialized parts Equipment and Tooling Reliability and quality problems

DFM/A System In Global Manufacturing

Commercial Airplanes - Military Aircraft & Missiles - Space & Communications - Air Traffic Management - Boeing Capital Corporation - Shared Services Group - Phantom Works

747 Final Assembly

at Everett, Washington

747 Freighter

747 Freighter

DFM Tools: DFA Guidelines

- One assembly direction tops down -No adjustments required -No hidden features - Easy to fabricate parts - Standard parts (one screw type)

- Test direction access from top

- Parts are self-guiding

- Sub-assemblies reduce handling of small hard to grip parts

- Avoid tangle with use of fixtures - Symmetry in two axis

- Holes large enough (straightness issues if too deep) - Common datums for all fixtures -One common plane for assembly - Tabs for robotic lift

-Die cast with minimal amount of holes (debris chip) -Standard cutters -Guide features - bottom rails for conveyor

DFM Tools: DFA Guidelines

Summary of DFA Guidelines
1. Minimize the number of parts 2. Standardize and use as many common parts as possible 3. Design parts for ease of fabrication (use castings without machining and stampings without bend) 4. Minimize the number of assembly planes (Z-axis) 5. Use standard cutters, drills, tools 6. Avoid small holes (chips, straightness, debris) 7. Use common datums for tooling fixtures 8. Minimize assembly directions 9. Maximize compliance; design for assembly 10. Minimize handling 11. Eliminate adjustments 12. Use repeatable, well understood processes 13. Design parts for efficient testing 14. Avoid hidden features 15. Use Guide features 16. Incorporate symmetry in both axis 17. Avoid designs that will tangle. 18. Design parts that orient themselves

DFM Tools and Methodology

FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis)
Method for analyzing the causes and effects of failures. Highlights designs and assemblies most likely to cause failures. Helps identify and prioritize corrective action Indicates where the most improvement in terms of severity, frequency, and detectability can be made. Widely used manufacturing technique (Mil standards, SAE, ANSI Specs)

Reduce the Costs of Assembly

1. Design for Assembly (DFA) index

2. Integrated Parts (Advantages and

Disadvantages) 3. Maximize Ease of Assembly 4. Consider Customer Assembly

1. Design for Assembly Index

(Theoretical minimum number of parts) x (3 seconds) DFA index = Estimated total assembly time

Determining the Theoretical Minimum Number of Parts

Does the part need to move relative to the

rest of the assembly? Must the part be made of a different material from the rest of the assembly for fundamental physical reasons? Does the part have to be separated from the assembly for assembly access, replacement, or repair?

2. Advantages of Integrated Parts

Do not have to be assembled

Often less expensive to fabricate rather than

the sum of each individual part Allows critical geometric features to be controlled by the part fabrication process versus a similar assembly process

2. Disadvantages of Integrated Parts

Conflict with other sound approaches to

minimize costs Not always a wise strategy

3. Maximize Ease of Assembly

Part is inserted from the top of the assembly

Part is self-aligning
Part does not need to be oriented

Part requires only one hand for assembly

Part requires no tools Part is assembled in a single, linear motion Part is secured immediately upon insertion

4. Consider Customer Assembly

Customers will tolerate some assembly

Design product so that customers can easily

and assemble correctly Customers will likely ignore directions

Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production

Minimize Systemic Complexity (inputs, outputs,

and transforming processes) Use smart design decisions Error Proofing (Poka Yoke) Anticipate possible failure modes Take appropriate corrective actions in the early stages Use color coding to easily identify similar looking, but different parts

Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on Other Factors

Development Time

Development Cost
Product Quality

External Factors Component reuse Life cycle costs

DFM&A Road Map

Membentuk sebuah multifunctional team Menetapkan sasaran produk melalui competitive

benchmarking Melakukan DFA analysis Melakukan segmentasi produk hingga mencapai manageable subassemblies atau levels of assembly Sebagai sebuah team, menggunakan prinsip-prinsip DFA Menggunakan teknik-teknik kreatif untuk meningkatkan desain yang dihasilkan Sebagai sebuah team, melakukan evaluasi dan memilih ide rancangan yang terbaik Memastikan bahwa setiap bagian komponen diproduksi pada level yang ekonomis Menentukan target cost untuk setiap komponen dalam desain produk yang baru


Design for Production

1. Design Organization

2. Timing of Production
3. Material Identification

4. Specific Design Details (outputs)

Production Input
At various design stages Concept
Production Input



Work Instruction
Production Preparation

New Idea: Provide Production Inputs

1. In proper level of detail at proper stage

2. In proper form
3. Just-in-time

Problems with Old Approach

Work is carried out from beginning to end

at each stage Too slow Needs continuous recycling

Design for Production General Principles

1. Use Common Sense

2. Plan and Define

3. Consider Available Facilities 4. Consider Available Tools 5. Consider Available Worker Skills 6. Employ Simplicity

7. Standardize

Design for Production Guidelines

1. Minimize Total Number of Parts

2. Develop a Modular Design

3. Minimize Part Variations

4. Design Parts to be Multifunctional

5. Design Parts for Multiuse 6. Design Parts for Ease of Fabrication 7. Avoid Separate Fasteners

Design for Production Guidelines

8. Minimize Assembly Direction (Top Down 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Direction Preferred) Maximize Compliance in Assembly Minimize Handling in Assembly Minimize complexity of Design Maximize common Jigs and Fixtures Optimize Work Position Ease Access


Types of Prototypes
Two dimensions Physical vs. Analytical Comprehensive vs. Focused

Physical vs. Analytical

Physical Tangible artifacts created to approximate the product Used for testing and experimentation

Analytical Represents the product in a nontangible, usually mathematical manner Product is analyzed, not built

Comprehensive vs. Focused

Comprehensive Implement all (or most) of the attributes of the product Full-scale Fully operational version of the product

Focused Implement a few of the attributes of the product Use two or more focused prototypes together to investigate the overall performance of a product

Prototype Uses
Learning Will it work? How well does it meet the customer needs? Communication Within the company With customers, vendors, and suppliers Integration Subsystems and components work together Milestones Product achieved a desired level of functionality

Principles of Prototyping
Analytical Prototypes are generally more flexible

than Physical Prototypes Physical Prototypes are required to detect unanticipated phenomena A Prototype may reduce the risk of costly iterations A Prototype may expedite (make it faster) other development steps A Prototype may restructure task dependencies

Use of comprehensive prototypes

Many comprehensive prototypes built. Analytical prototypes used extensively. Carefully planned comprehensive prototypes. Examples: software, consumer products Sometimes the first unit built is actually sold. Examples: airplanes, satellites, automobiles

Technical or Market Risk


One prototype may be built for verification.

Few or no comprehensive prototypes built.

Examples: printed goods


Examples: commerical buildings, ships


High Cost of Comprehensive Prototype (Time or Money)

Prototyping Technologies
3D Computer Modeling Easily visualize the 3D form of the design Automatically compute physical properties Other more focused descriptions can be created based on one design Detect geometric interference among parts

Prototype Technologies
Free-Form Fabrication (or Rapid

3D printers that create physical objects directly from 3D computer models Less expensive Reduce product development time, improve resulting product

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

3D Printing

Planning for Prototypes

1. Tentukan kegunaan dari prototype yang

akan dibuat. 2. Menetapkan level kedekatan/kemiripan prototype yang akan dibuat. 3. Tentukan garis besar/outline rencana experiment menggunakan prototype tersebut 4. Membuat schedule untuk procurement, construction, dan pengujian prototype

Define the Purpose

List specific learning and communication

goals List any integration needs Determine if the prototype is intended to be one of the major milestones of the overall product development project

Establish the Level of Approximation

Determine physical or analytical prototype

Choose the simplest prototype that will

serve the purpose established in step 1. Consider existing prototypes or a another prototype being built that can be borrowed

Outline an Experimental Plan

Menggunakan prototype untuk pengujian/

experiment Menggali maximum value dari aktivitas prototyping. Mengidentifikasi variable-variable yang digunakan dalam experiment, test protocol, rencana proses analisa terhadap data-data yang dihasilkan.

Create a Schedule for Procurement, Construction, and Test

Menentukan kapan komponen-komponen

yang akan digunakan siap untuk dirakit/diassembly Menentukan waktu kapan prototype akan diuji pertama kalinya Menentukan harapan-harapan untuk completed testing and final results (termasuk dalam hal ini performance yang diharapkan dari produk tersebut)

Milestone Prototypes
Alpha Prototypes memperkirakan

apakah produk yang dirancang dapat berfungsi/bekerja sesuai dengan yang direncanakan/dirancang Beta Prototypes memperkirakan keandalan/reliability dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan adanya kesalahankesalahan/bugs dalam produk yang dirancang Preproduction Prototypes produk pertama yang dibuat/dihasilkan dengan keseluruhan proses produksi

Ulrich, K. & Eppinger, S. (2000). Product Design and Development. Boston, MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill.


Dr. Muhammad K. Herliansyah, ST. MT.

Tugas Mandiri:
Define each of the following parameters and what

they mean in a design for manufacturing system:

Rate Quality Cost Flexibility

You are the decision-maker at an automobile

manufacturer. Describe one change for each of the terms above that you might make to improve that parameter. What trade offs would be associated with each of those changes?