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Pritam Kambli Amruta Karbelkar Vikrant Yelve Kshama Sawant Vidhi Shah

HOW IS HEAT TRANSFER ACCOMPLISHED? Heat can transfer between the surface of a solid conductor and the surrounding medium whenever temperature gradient exists. There are three ways:

Conduction Convection Radiation

It is generally considered as the heat transfer phenomena for the solids It follows the Fourier Law of Heat Conduction: Q = -kAT

Where, Q = transfer of heat per unit time k = conductive heat transfer coefficient A = heat transfer area T = temperature difference between two systems
The thermal conductivity units in SI system is W/mK.

Convective heat transfer occurs when the heat is transferred from a solid surface to a moving fluid owing to the temperature difference between the solid and the fluid.
It follows the Newtons Cooling Law of Heat Convection:

Where, Q = transfer of heat per unit time h = convection heat transfer coefficient A = heat transfer area T = temperature of fluid T'= temperature of solid

Q = hA(T T')

Convection is further classified as:

Natural Convection Natural convection occurs whenever heat flows between a solid and fluid, or between fluid layers. As a result of heat exchange Change in density of effective fluid layers taken place, which causes upward flow of heated fluid. If this motion is associated with heat transfer mechanism only, then it is called Natural Convection Forced Convection If this motion is associated by mechanical means such as pumps, gravity or fans, the movement of the fluid is enforced.



The efficiency of a bodys ability to transfer heat by convection to the surrounding environment is defined by the convective heat transfer co-efficient.

Q = heat flow in input or lost heat flow , J/s = W h = heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2K) A = heat transfer surface area, m2 = difference in temperature between the solid surface and surrounding fluid area, K

Methods of calculating heat Transfer Co-efficient

It can be estimated by dividing the thermal conductivity of the convection fluid by a length scale. The heat transfer coefficient is often calculated from the Nusselt number.

An understanding of convection boundary layers is necessary to understanding convective heat transfer between a surface and a fluid flowing past it.


Energy moves from hot fluid to a surface by convection, through the wall by conduction, and then by convection from the surface to the cold fluid.

Region III: Solid Cold Liquid Convection

dqx hc .Tow Tc .dA

Th Ti,wall


Region I : Hot LiquidSolid Convection NEWTONS LAW OF CCOLING Q hot

To,wall Tc
Q cold

dqx hh .Th Tiw .dA

Region II : Conduction Across Copper Wall FOURIERS LAW

dT dqx k . dr

AIM: To establish wall heat transfer in packed bed and determine relationship between nusselt number and reynolds number.

APPARATUS: Hot water with constant inlet temperature as heating medium, Platform Scale balance, stop watch, weighing container, Auxiliary piping and pumping equipment.

A 5.0 cm copper tube is fitted with an external jacket. The packing is 3/8" 3/8" raschig rings, labeled inside the tube up to 45.7 cm length and rest on a perforated plate,having 45% hole area. The packed bed exchanger is equipped with thermometers to measure the inlet and outlet temperatures of cold water and hot water owing respectively on the tube side and jacket side.

Experimental Setup

Inner diameter of packed tube (Di) = 50 mm. Outer diameter of packed tube (Do) = 60.6 mm. Inner diameter of jacket (Di) jacket = 86 mm. Length of packed test section = 457.2mm. Raschig Ring Dimensions: Length = 13.6 mm, Inner diameter = 7.6 mm, Outer diameter = 13.6mm.


1. Admit the cold water through the packed tube and set its flow rate to the desired value as indicated by the calibrated Rota meter.
2. Admit hot water through the jacket at 60C and at constant flow rate of about 10 kg/min. 3. When the steady state is reached, record the inlet and outlet temperatures of cold water and hot water. 4. Determine the exact flow rates of cold water and hot fluid by weighing the liquids collected in a known interval of time. 5. Repeat the above procedure for several low rates. Flow rate of cold water in the packed bed should be in the range of 2 to 7 kg/min for constant operating conditions of

Method of Calculation

A steel pipe of diameter 10cm is maintained at 170oC and exposed to air at 30oC. Length of the pipe is 2m and is kept horizontally. Find the heat lost by pipe per hour. Following are the properties at mean temperature. Thermal conductivity = 0.0322W/m/K Kinematic Viscosity = 23.3X10-6 Prandlt number = 0.69 For horizontal cylinders: Nu =hL/k = 0.53(Gr.Pr)1/4 {104<Gr.Pr<109}

Formulae Used
Gr = BgmL3/2 Pr = Cp./k B = 1/T Q = hAt

REFERENCE Lab manual of chemical engineering, exp no.19, heat transfer in Packed bed. Unit operation of chemical engineering, mccabe and smith, 5th edition, Pg.403 to pg.465. Heat transfer co-efficient experiment in fin surface, pdf.