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# Practical Electric Circuits -

Safety
Mains Supply - a.c and d.c
 a.c. (alternating current) - current
changes direction (50Hz)
 mains electricity is a.c
 In Singapore the a.c is at 230 V
 d.c. - (direct current) - current in
one direction always
 from dry cell, solar cell, car battery
Mains Supply - a.c circuits
2 wires are always required
 Live – at 230 V (dangerous)
 Neutral – at 0 V

N
Switch must be on live wire
When off appliance will be at 0 V
When someone touches the live wire at
the appliance, no electric shock
(electrocution)

No sweat!

N
If switch is on neutral wire
When off appliance will be at 230 V
When someone touches the live wire at the
appliance, he will get an electric shock
(electrocution)

N
Fuses and circuit breaker
 Fuses - melts when the current is
too high
 Made of metals with low melting
points
 Fuse rating
 in
A (ampere)
 maximum current
 Use P=VxI to calculate the current
for suitable fuse to be used
Fuses
So is a fuse
Must be on live wire
(fuse comes first before the switch)

fuse

N
Fuses and circuit breaker
 Circuit breakers will break the circuit
when the current is too high (30 A)
 It can be reset easily
Fuses and circuit breaker

##  ELCB (Earth leakage circuit

breaker)
 will break the circuit when a fault
causes a current flow to the earth
wire
 It can be reset easily
3-pin plug
Greenish-
Earth
yellow

Live
Brown
Neutral
Blue
Earthing
 Earth wire is connected to the outer metal
casing of an appliance

L
N
E
Metal casing
Earthing
 When a fault occurs and the live wire
touches the casing, current can flow to the
earth wire
 This current is big (no resistance) and so
the fuse at the live wire will blow
 Current cannot reach the faulty appliance
so preventing an electrocution
Earthing

## Live wire breaks and touches

Without metal casing
earthing Metal casing becomes “live”
Person touching metal casing
will get electric shock
Earthing

Current flows to
the earth wire
connected to the
Live wire metal casing
breaks and The big current
touches blows the fuse
metal casing
Double insulation
 Earthing not needed for
appliances with no outer metal
casing
 These appliance have double
insulation
 Even when there is a fault the
current cannot reach the casing
because it is an insulator
Electrical Hazards

Damp Conditions
Damaged insulation
Overheating
Electrical Hazards

Damp Conditions
Water is a good conductor
of electricity
It will cause electric shock
Electrical Hazards
Damaged insulation
Insulating material is worn off
Wires below are exposed
–Cause electric shock when
touched
–Cause short circuit when
live wire touches neutral wire
Electrical Hazards
Overheating
Too many plugs used on the
same power point using multi-