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The Managerial Communication Process

Levels of Managerial Communication

1. 2. 3. 4.

Intrapersonal Group Organizational Intercultural

A Strategic Approach

Layer One:

CLIMATE--trust, open/closed. CULTURE--shared values, beliefs, informal, power structures.

A Strategic Approach
2. Layer Two

PURPOSE 1) social, 2) present information 3) gain information 4) persuade 5) defend ones self SENDER (Encoder) comfort, skill, personality, power, knowledge. MESSAGE Verbal and Non Verbal MEDIUM Printed word, electronic mail or sound RECEIVER (Decoder) relationship, status, audience interest, emotional state, knowledge level, communication skills FEEDBACK Oral or written message, action or complete silence

A Strategic Approach
3. Layer Three:

3. 4.

Specific content. Message channel. Time communication occurs. Physical environment in which it occurs.

Message Content
Classification of content according to four factors: 1. Positive, negative or neutral message to receiver. 2. Fact or opinion. 3. Importance to receiver. 4. How controversial is the message.

Channel of the Message

1. 2.

Which channel is most appropriate? Which technology is most appropriate? Oral Written Oral and written Visual Do you present to group or individual? What are costs involved?


Physical Environment
1. 2.


Is it a public or private situation? Does it involve a formal or informal setting? What is the distance between the sender and the receiver? Is it a familiar or unfamiliar environment?

Feedback and Measures of Effectiveness

Feedback allows the sender to determine how the message was interpreted and, if necessary, provides an opportunity to modify future messages. As with communication, effective feedback must utilize the right message and the appropriate channel.

Critical Errors In Communication

ASSUMPTION-OBSERVATION ERROR acceptance as valid without requiring proof. FAILURE TO DISCRIMINATEfailure to perceive and communicate significant differences among individuals or changes in situations; hardening of categories. Avoid either/or view of the world. Avoid frozen evaluation (been there, done that) ALLNESS ILLNESSpeople who think its possible to know and say everything about somethingintolerant of others viewpoints.

Seven Cs of Effective Communication

Completeness Conciseness Consideration Concreteness Clarity Courtesy Correctness


Provide all necessary information Answer all questions asked Give additional inputs/information (if and when desirable)


Eliminate wordy expressions Include only relevant material Avoid repetition


Focus on You instead of I or We Show audience benefit Show interest in the receiver Emphasize positive, pleasant facts


Use specific facts and figures Put action in your verbs Choose vivid, image building words


Choose precise, concrete and familiar words Construct effective sentences and paragraphs length, unity, emphasis and coherence


Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative Use expressions that show respect Choose nondiscriminatory expressions


Use the right level of language Check accuracy of figures, facts and words Maintain acceptable writing mechanics