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FRAME and MODELS for planning a lesson

UNIT 4
omarti@edu.uji.es

This is a floor house plan:

WHAT IS PLANNING?

What elements do architects manage during the planning phase? Do architects help during the building process? Are architects still present after the planning phase?

WHY do architects plan?


Who are the main STAKEHOLDERS of their work?

WHAT DOES A LESSON PLAN LOOK LIKE ?

How would you describe a lesson plan in the everyday routine work of service teachers?

Is it mental or written, mutable or fixed?

Does it consist of brief informal NOTES or of a long formal detailed DOCUMENT which follows a prescribed format?

WHAT IS A LESSON PLAN?


NARROW definition (Jensen, 2001). Deciding:
what to teach (i.e. contents) in what order (i.e. sequence) for how much time (i.e. timing)

WIDE definition (Harmer, 1991). Deciding:


to WHOM: description of the class or NEEDS ANALYSIS
goals (the WHY) contents (the WHAT): see above HOW to teach (methodology, materials, resources, grouping, teaching/learning context) HOW to evaluate what was taught.

WHY DO LESSONS NEED TO BE PLANNED?


Is it still necessary to plan when one is an experienced teacher or when lessons have already been planned by textbook writers?
If your answer has been Yes? Why do teachers still need to plan or ADAPT pre-fabricated plans to their classrooms? What are the elements of the wide definition of lesson plans that cannot be anticipated in materials elaborated by textbook writers or by the education authorities:
Learners needs or the WHO? Lesson objectives, aims, goals or the WHY? Lesson contents or activities or the WHAT? Lesson methodology or the HOW?

According to Farrell (2002: 27): Planning can be regarded as a process of TRANSFORMATION during which the teacher creates ideas for a lesson based on understanding of learners NEEDS, problems, and interests, and on the content of the lesson itself (Farrell, 2002: 27).

WHY DO LESSONS NEED TO BE PLANNED ?


Then, who benefits from lesson plans?
STUDENTS teachers and substitute teachers administrators (principals, supervisors and other observers)

Therefore, lessons need to be planned in order to:


PAY ATTENTION TO STUDENTS different ages, backgrounds (linguistic or family backgrounds), previous knowledge, interests, abilities and learning styles or learning difficulties. HELP TEACHERS to think about content, activities, sequencing, timing, methods, materials, and evaluation PROVIDE both novice and experienced teachers with security, confidence and calm. AID substitutes to smoothly take over a class (i.e. without problems related to CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT)

REASONS FOR PLANING LESSONS


Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here? asked Alice. That depends a good deal on where you want to get to, said the Cheshire cat. From Alices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll McCutcheon (1980) pinpoints:

INTERNAL reasons. Teachers (especially pre-service) feel more confident because thinking about the lesson in advance helps (Richards, 1998):
a) to learn the SUBJECT MATTER better b) to provide a STRUCTURE for the lesson c) to provide a MAP for the teacher to follow

d) to provide a RECORD of what has been taught in order to assess the learning process.
e) to enable lessons to run more smoothly as problems and difficulties can be anticipated before they happen (CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT)

EXTERNAL reasons such as:

(i) satisfying PRINCIPALS or SUPERVISORS expectations and/or


(ii) guiding SUBSTITUTE TEACHERS

LESSON PLANNING LEVELS OR STAGES

From MACRO TO MICROPLANNING: An actual lesson plan is the end point of many other stages of planning that culminate in a daily lesson (Jensen, 2001)

STAGES of PLANNING (Farrell, 2002):


SYLLABUS design: yearly and/or term/semester planning (e.g. listing OBJECTIVES of a programme of studies) DIDACTIC UNIT planning=a number of related lessons around a specific topic (e.g. eating habits, etc.) LESSON planning=daily decisions a teacher makes for the successful outcome of a lesson (Richards, 1998):
BEFORE the class DURING the class: interactive decisions AFTER the class: evaluative decisions

1st stage: SYLLABUS DESIGN


It is more GENERAL than the other types of planning It is planned at the beginning of every school year or every term during the academic year.

In the Valencian Community it is ruled by Ordre 45/2011, de 8 de juny, de la Conselleria dEducaci per la qual es regula lESTRUCTURA bsica de les programacions didctiques en lensenyana bsica (see this decree in AV)

ELEMENTS OF A SYLLABUS
INTRODUCTION
Justification Context NEEDS ANALYSIS

OBJECTIVES

General objectives of Primary Education Specific objectives of a given Area of Knowledge (e.g. Arts) or of a Subject

KEY COMPETENCES* CONTENTS


METHODOLOGY
DIDACTIC UNITS
Organization Sequencing

**

CLIL methodology

ELEMENTS OF A SYLLABUS
ASSESSMENT
a) assessment criteria b) assessment tools c) types of evaluation d) marking criteria e) reinforcement and extension activities f) assessment of the teachinglearning PROCESS

ATTENTION TO DIVERSITY

ENHANCING READING
USE OF ICT RESOURCES SUPPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES

KEY COMPETENCES*
The EU defines key competence as a combination of SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE and ATTITUDES which are adequate to the context.
Key competences are those which everyone needs for PERSONAL performance and development, as well as for ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP, SOCIAL INCLUSION and EMPLOYMENT. In our educational system, there are eight key competences students should possess when they finish their obligatory education:

1) Competence in LINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION;


2) Mathematical competence; 3) Competence in knowledge of and interaction with the physical world; 4) Data processing and digital competence;

5) Social and civic competence;


6) Cultural and artistic competence; 7) Learning-to-learn 8) Autonomy and personal initiative

THE LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE


Knowledge of the Physical World

Mathematical knowledge

Knowledge of Art and Culture

The skill of LINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION

THE LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE


DATA PROCESSING AND DIGITAL COMPETENCE

AUTONOMY AND PERSONAL INITIATIVE

LINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION

SOCIAL AND CIVIC


COMPETENCE

LEARNING TO LEARN

There are TWO different kinds of didactic units:

2nd stage: PLANNING A DIDACTIC UNIT**

1.- Didactic units in the language syllabus, or LANGUAGE SUBJECTS:


classes of Catalan or about the Catalan language. classes of Castilian or about the Castilian language. classes OF English or about the English language (for SPECIALIST PRIMARY TEACHERS).

2.- Didactic units of any other non-linguistic area of knowledge or subject in the school curriculum IN which the language of teaching/learning is:

English (CLIL) BEWARE! As English is a foreign language in our school contexts we need to pay MORE attention to communication issues in these didactic units. For example, we need to provide students with COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT while teaching the content matter at the same time.

Catalan Castilian

ELEMENTS OF DIDACTIC UNITS**


LENGTH: how many in-class sessions of 50 minutes OBJECTIVES

KEY COMPETENCES CONTENTS ACTIVITIES:

sequencing (in what order) timing (for how long)


materials resources

METHODOLOGY:

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA REINFORCEMENT AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

LESSON PLANNING: Models

Yingers alternative model Tylers rational-linear model (1980) (1946) i. problem conception i. specify objective (s) ii. select activities integration of teachers iii. organize activities goals, knowledge and EXPERIENCE iv. specify evaluation methods ii. problem formulated and solution achieved BUT, according to Taylor ii. implementing the plan along with (1970) teachers do not its evaluation follow these four steps when focusing on learners BEWARE! In Yingers model, each planning event is influenced by what went on before needs.
and by what may happen in the future