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Stereotypical Gay Man

 has feminine interests such as


decorating and gardening
works in an occupation such as
hairstyling and designing
 has feminine mannerisms
 uninterested in sports
 opposite of macho
Stereotypical Lesbian
has short hair
 wears baggy clothes or
masculine clothes
 never wear jewelry and
make-up
examples of stereotype people:
David Kopay – has written
autobiography about being a gay
professional football player

Marlene Dietrich – glamorous


heterosexual symbol who is
apparently, sexually involved
with women.
“Man as a feminine and Woman
as a masculine”
•individual being described has the attributes
or characteristics of the opposite sex.
• Gay men are feminine in their sexual
orientation but masculine in their physical
appearance and organs
• while Lesbians are masculine in terms of
sexual orientation but feminine in appearance
and organs
• It is like “A woman trapped inside a man’s
body and vice versa”
Gender Roles
• Behaviors, attitudes and personality traits
that a society designates as masculine or
feminine, that is, more “appropriate” for or
typical of the male or female social role.
• a set of behaviors that indicates
one's gender, specif. the image
projected by a person that identifies
their femaleness or maleness; an
overt public presentation of gender
identity (dictionary.com)
• Measurement of Gender Role in children:
Preferences of friends (male to male
and female to female), Games and
Toys played (robots for boys, dolls for
girls; rough games for boys, dress-up
play for girls)
• Measurement of Gender Role in adults:
Occupational and Recreational
Interests (beauticians are mostly
women while carpentry are for men),
Attitude in the society (women are
nurturing and caring while men are
aggressive and courageous)
Gender Identity
• One’s subjective sense of being
either female or male
• a person's inner sense of being
male or female, usually developed
during early childhood as a result of
parental rearing practices and
societal influences and strengthened
during puberty by hormonal changes
(dictionary.com)
Transsexualism
• a discordance between
gender identity and
anatomical sex
• "intense desire to change
one's sexual status,
including the anatomical
structure,"
Childhood Gender Identity and
Sexual Orientation
Boys behave differently than girls
and this becomes prominent
when they reach the age of 3.
Boys who behave like girls are
called “sissies” while girls who
behave like boys are called
“tomboys”
 According to some researches,
the most very feminine boys
become gay or bisexual man
when they grow older.
 While on girls, although there is a
high rate of tomboys becoming
lesbians, still, most of these
tomboys turns out to be
heterosexual when they grow up.
Feminine
Boys to
Gay Men
a. Study by GREEN (1987)
• He wants to study if feminine
boys become gay men when
older
• He recruited 66 feminine boys
(Fboys) and 56 non-feminine
(NFboys) boys (mostly 7 year old
but ranges from 4-12 years) though
newspaper advertisements
•The results of his study are as
follows:
-70 % Fboys cross-dress while 0
NFboys cross-dress
-50% Fboys play with dolls while
only 5% NFboys play with
dolls
-60% Fboys take feminine roles in
role playing while 0 NFboys
take them
-80% Fboys relate better to girls
compared with 5% of the NFboys
-80% Fboys wish to be girls
compared to 10% of the
•The parents of these children reported
that
the feminine behaviors of the Fboys
emerged
quite early.
•Green found evidence for a small effect
of
parent’s reactions on their son’s
subsequent
behavior . Parents who discourage
feminine
behavior among the feminine boys
•Green became interested in
transsexual
men who undergo sexual surgeries
to
change their gender.
•1 of Green’s subjects became a
transsexual
man which is a boy from the
feminine
group. The ratio of 1:60 boys
(Green’s) is
b. Study by ZUGER (1984)
•He conducted a similar study using 55 feminine
boys as his subject. He did not use any non-
feminine boys. 16 of which boys range from 12 – 16
years old. The overall average of these boys is 9
years old.
•His findings are somewhat similar to that of Green’s.
•73% were judged to have homosexual or bisexual
orientations
•6% have heterosexual orientations
•21% could not be determined due to lack of
information given
•Although he does not have a control group (non-
feminine boys), the rate of homosexuality that he got is
much higher.
^^ Conclusiveness of the
evidence
•Zucker (1990) reviewed
prospective
studies about feminine boys
including
that of Green and Zuger’s.
•There were a total of 99 boys
followed to
adulthood.
59 of them had homo/bisexual
^^ Were most gay men
feminine boys?
Although very feminine boys are
most
likely to become gay men, it does
not
necessarily follow that all gay men
were
feminine boys.
Several analyses suggest that
many, not
all, gay men were somewhat
Tomboys
to
Lesbian
a.Study by Green and his
Colleague (Green, Williams and
Goodman, 1982)
They compared 49 tomboys to 50 girls
The tomboys are quite different with
respect to their preferred toys,
gender of
their peer group, sports
participation, roles
in role playing and their wish on
being
boys.
studies support the likelihood that an
association exists.
The female distribution indicated that:
81% lesbians exceeded the typical
heterosexual woman
12% of heterosexual women exceeded
the typical lesbian on measures of
childhood
gender atypicality.
 Thus, the retrospective study suggests
that, on study, Lesbians were more
tomboyish
children than were heterosexual
 In contrast, female homosexuality
appears
to be less common than male
homosexuality. (Gebhard, 1972)
Using the results of meta-analysis,
we
estimated that of girls as masculine
as the
typical prelesbian, only 6% will
become
lesbian.
In contrast, the analogous estimate
Adult Gender Identity
Are Gay Men Feminine? Are Lesbians
Masculine?
•Research on Adult Gender Identity is more
difficult
to characterize than that of children.
•One possible reason why: Differences in
gender
identity between heterosexual and
homosexual
individuals may be less pronounced in
adulthood
than childhood.
Whitam (1977) – observed that most
*One-and two-factor scales of masculinity-
femininity
•The measurement of gender identity is
presently less satisfactory for adults than
for children.
*Scales of masculinity-femininity
•Scales that were typically constructed from
a large pool of items that discriminate
between men and women
•Unfortunately, most of the M-F tests are
based on coherent theory and so, it is
unclear what the findings mean.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory M-F subscale
oMost frequently used scale in research
on
sexual orientation
oIncludes only 1 thing: “I am very
strongly
attracted to members of my own sex.”
Pillard (1991) – reviewed studies
containing
measures of M-F and found that in 26 or
27
studies, gay men were significantly
more
[ Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, Bem 1974)
Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ: Spence
and Helinreich 1978) ]
•Instruments that were conceptually premised
on the notion, that psychological masculinity
and psychological femininity are two different
factors.
Fillard (1991) – found that in using either
BSRI or PAQ, gay men tend to be higher
on femininity or expressiveness.
However, gay men tend to be as high as
heterosexual men on the masculinity subscale
and lesbians as high as heterosexual women
on the femininity subscale.
ther sexual
dimorphic
traits
Other sexually dimorphic traits

a. Sexual behavior
•Such as: interest in visual sexual
stimuli, sexual versus emotional
jealousy, interest in uncommitted sex,
and importance of a partner’s physical
attractiveness, status, and youth
(Bailey, Gaulin, Agyei and Gladue,
1994)
Gay men respond similarly to
heterosexual
men and lesbians to heterosexual
women
Gay and heterosexual men are
equally
interested in casual sex while
lesbians and
heterosexual women are
disinterested.
Gay men and lesbians were also
Contrasts:
Lesbians appeared more interested
than
heterosexual women in visual sexual
stimuli such as erotica.
Lesbians were similar to women in their
greater concerns with emotional than
with sexual infidelity and were
intermediate between women and
heterosexual men in the emphasis
they
“Neither gay men and lesbians
are generally masculine or
feminine. Further, the degree of
masculinity or femininity
depends on the sexually
dimorphic characteristic.”
b. Aggressiveness
1.Men are verbally and
physically aggressive and
competitive than women.
2.Gay men recall being
physically unaggressive as
boys.
3.Lesbians reported less
physical aggressiveness
Gladue and Bailey (1994) –
administered
aggressiveness and
competitiveness
questionnaires to a large sample of
gay
men, lesbians, heterosexual men
and
women. (68 to 82 per group)
They found that Men are more
physically aggressive and
more competitive than
Occupations and Careers
Gay men and lesbians continue
to face
discrimination in the workplace,
they
may be hesitant to occupations
may
be the most likely to remain
closeted
and therefore the least likely to
be
Gay men are underrepresented in blue-
collar occupations and overrepresented
in service occupations compared to
heterosexual men, perhaps because the
latter occupations are more consistent
with their gender identities.
Gay men are overrepresented as artists,
dancers, and fashion designers while
lesbians are among soldiers and
professional athletes.
Other
Scientific
Issues
Biological Interpretation
The most prominent
biological
hypothesis is that sexual
orientation is a function of
the
degree of masculinization
relevant brain structures
due to
the effects of early
Psychosocial
Interpretations
Male homosexuality was
hypothesized to result from
the
combination of an
excessively
close mother-son
relationship and
a distant , if not antagonistic,
Within-Orientation
Differences in Gender
Identity
Meyer-Bahlburg (1993) speculated
that
hormonal theories of sexual
orientation
may be most relevant to lesbians
and gay
men who were atypical in their
childhood
gender identity.
Biosexuality
Most research on sexual
orientation either excludes bisexual
subjects or includes them with gay
or lesbian subjects.
Phillips and Over (1992)
studied
childhood gender identity in a
sample of gay and bisexual
men.
They reported that each of 10
items
Transvestism and
Transsexualism
Transvestism:
Transvestite – typically
experiences a compulsion to
cross-dress, often in
private.
-Heterosexual men
who had masculine
gender identity as
children.
Normative
Issues
Homosexuality has not been
classified as a mental
disorder
since 1973 in the US.
Gender Identity disorder of
childhood raises especially
difficult questions.
Ambivalence:
2 reasons for ambivalence
apply more to gay men than
to lesbians:
1.In many cultures,
feminine
boys and men are often
treated
badly, generally worse
than
masculine girls and
Ambivalence implies mixed
feelings rather than
unmitigated
hostility.
Femiphobia – description of
gay
men being the most