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Chapter 1

Exchange Server 2007 Basics

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

WHAT IS THE EXCHANGE SERVER?


Exchange Server is a messaging and collaboration

software product from Microsoft.

Microsoft Exchange Server is a messaging software

product that is used in many organizations today.

Although its main use is to provide email services,

Exchange Server can also be used for collaboration such as scheduling and calendaring.

Exchange Server 2007 is the most comprehensive

and feature-rich version of Exchange Server to date.

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

EMAIL
Email is used by nearly every organization as its

main form of internal and external communication. that are sent between people on a computer or computer network.

Electronic mail (email) consists of written messages

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

MAIL USER AGENT


For users who send email (called senders), email is typically

created and sent using an email client program called a Mail User Agent (MUA) . Common MUAs include:
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Outlook Express Microsoft Entourage Windows Mail Eudora Web browsers such as Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox (if

connecting to web-based email systems like Gmail, Hotmail, and Yahoo Mail)

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

MAIL TRANSFER AGENT


Once an email is written using an MUA and addressed to a

target user (called a recipient ), it must be sent to an email server. Common email servers include:
Microsoft Exchange
Lotus Domino Novell GroupWise Sendmail Postfix

The email server contains a program called the Mail Transfer

Agent (MTA) that decides where to send the email that it receives from the MUA.

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

MAIL DELIVERY AGENT


If the email needs to be delivered to a recipient in

another organization, then the MTA sends the email across the Internet to the target email server for the other organization Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) that it uses to deliver the mail to the correct mailbox on the email server. email from their mailbox.

The target email server contains a program called a

Recipients will then use their MUA to obtain the

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

MAIL DELIVERY AGENT

Chapter 1: Exchange Server 2007 Basics

RETRIEVING EMAIL
If the email needs to be delivered to a user within

the same organization, then the MTA sends the email to its own MDA, which it then uses to deliver the email to the correct mailbox for the recipient. the email

Recipients can then use their own MUA to retrieve

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DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM


Domain Name System (DNS) provides us with an easy way

around this problem. DNS has a hierarchical naming convention (also called a namespace) that starts with an imaginary root (referred to with a period .) and several toplevel domain names that describe the type of organization. The most common top-level domain names in DNS include:
com (commercial) org (nonprofit organization) net (an organization that maintains a network)

edu (educational institution)


gov (government) abbr (a two-letter abbreviation for the country; for example us

refers to the United States and ca refers to Canada)

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DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM


A DNS name also contains a second-level domain

name that refers to the actual name of the organization.


organization called Microsoft.

For example, microsoft.com is the commercial

Under the second-level domain can be other

subdomain names or the names of individual computer hosts. they contain the name of the host computer.

Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs) because

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A (HOST) RECORDS
Translates from host name to IP address.

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MAIL EXCHANGE RECORDS

Indicate the email server for a particular domain to which email should be forwarded. Because there may be more than one email server in a particular organization, domains may have more than one MX record. Each MX record is given a priority number when created. The lower the priority number, the greater the chance that it will be a target for email. Consider the following MX records for the microsoft.com domain: microsoft.com MX mailA.microsoft.com priority=10 microsoft.com MX mailB.microsoft.com priority=20 microsoft.com MX mailC.microsoft.com priority=30 The MTA tries to contact the email server with the lowest priority number first (mailA.microsoft.com).

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SMART HOST
An email server that receives inbound email and

simply forwards it to another email server within the organization. software that stops malicious and unsolicited email from entering the company.

Smart hosts often have antivirus and spam-filtering

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NSLOOKUP COMMAND

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EMAIL MESSAGES
When you type an email into an MUA, the text itself

is:

Either left unformatted (called plain text )

or formatted using Hypertext Markup Language

(HTML) or Rich Text Format (RTF) to allow different font, colors, and pictures.

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PROTOCOLS TO OBTAIN EMAILS


The POP3 and IMAP4 protocols are very similar and

designed for obtaining emails from the mailbox on an email server. from the mailbox on the email server

By default, POP3 downloads and erases the email IMAP4 allows you to view emails while leaving a

copy in the mailbox on the email server.

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PROTOCOLS USED TO SEND EMAILS


The SMTP and ESMTP protocols were specifically designed to send emails. SMTP/ESMTP uses Port 25 by default. ESMTP is an improved version of SMTP that has greater support for embedded graphics and attachments in emails and is the most common form of SMTP used today between email servers. To see which version of SMTP your email server accepts, you can use the telnet.exe program from a client computer to connect to the email server on the SMTP/ESMTP port: telnet IP_address 25
If the email server accepts the EHLO command in your telnet session,

it supports ESMTP. If the email server accepts the HELO command in your telnet session, it only supports SMTP.

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HTTP PROTOCOL
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is typically used

if the email server hosts a Web site that allows you to view and compose emails using your web browser or email client program. Exchange Server 2007 and may be used with Internet Information Services (IIS) to provide a way for users to connect remotely using a web browser to check and send email.

Microsoft Outlook Web Access (OWA) comes with

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MICROSOFT OUTLOOK WEB ACCESS (OWA)

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RPC AND MAPI


Remote procedure call (RPC) is an Inter-process

communication technology that allows a computer program to cause a subroutine or procedure to execute in another address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network) without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this remote interaction. Microsoft Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI) component of Windows to take advantage of all the features available in Exchange Server. in Exchange Server.

Outlook and Entourage clients can use RPCs alongside the

Only MAPI clients can take full advantage of all the features

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OUTLOOK ANYWHERE
Outlook 2003 and later clients can use RPC over

HTTP to connect to a remote Microsoft Exchange server.

RPCs are encapsulated in HTTP packets in Outlook

before they are sent across the Internet to an RPC over HTTP proxy, which removes the encapsulation and forwards the RPCs to the Microsoft Exchange server. is called Outlook Anywhere .

In Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, RPC over HTTP

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ACTIVESYNC
ActiveSync is a protocol based on HTTP and XML

that can be used by some browser-enabled cellular telephones (called smart phones) to access emails from a Microsoft Exchange server. operating system can use the ActiveSync protocol.

Any smart phone running the Windows Mobile

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EXCHANGE SERVER 5.5


Starting with Exchange 5.5, Exchange supports

x.400, x.500 and public folders.

X.400 defines the rules for sending email today.

X.500 defines the structure and use of directory

services such as Novell eDirectory and Microsoft Active Directory (AD).

Public folders are storage areas on the email server

that could be used to store email and other types of message data such as newsgroup postings for easy organization and sharing among email recipients.

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2000


Added better clustering
Support, larger email database sizes, and the ability

to combine email databases into storage groups for better database management.

Required the Microsoft Active Directory service.

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2003


Added support for disaster recovery using the

recovery storage group (RSG), ActiveSync and spam filtering. 32-bit versions of Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003.

Exchange Server 2003 could be installed only on

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007


Although you can download a trial 32-bit (x86)

version of Exchange Server 2007 for testing purposes, the commercial version only runs on 64bit (x86-64) computers with a 64-bit version of Windows Server 2003. bit version of Windows Server 2008, you must install Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 1 (SP1) or greater.

If you want to install Exchange Server 2007 on a 64-

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007


Enhanced Performance
It can take advantage of more than 4 GB of physical

RAM

Exchange Server 2007 is limited to 5 databases and

storage groups on a single server for Standard edition and 50 databases and storage groups on a single server for Enterprise edition. Server 2007 than in previous versions of Exchange Server.

Databases also have a faster structure in Exchange

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007


Unlimited database size
Fax and voice mail integration using Unified

Messaging (UM).

Similarly, you can use Outlook Voice Access (OVA) to

access your mailbox from a telephone.

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007


Improved Management Tools
The new Exchange Management Console (EMC) in

Exchange Server 2007 uses the new and more intuitive Microsoft Management Console (MMC) version 3.0 interface. PowerShell scripting language.

Management Shell (EMS) is a snap-in for the Windows

The Exchange Management Console has almost 400

Exchange-specific commands called cmdlets that may be used to configure and manage Exchange Server 2007.

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EXCHANGE MANAGEMENT CONSOLE

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EXCHANGE MANAGEMENET SHELL

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007


Faster email relay
Enhanced email protection Managed folder support Better user experience

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007


Improved clustering support
Active/Passive mode - One of the Exchange servers (the active

node) was active and in use on the network, while the other node (the passive node) was only used if the active node became unavailable (a process called failover ). data continuously to another Exchange server on a local or remote network.
Exchange Server be installed in the same cluster

You can configure Exchange Server 2007 to replicate its email

Cluster Continuous Replication (CCR) requires that the target Standby Continuous Replication (SCR) does not require the target

to be installed in the same cluster because each Exchange server maintains its own storage.

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007 ROLES


In smaller organizations, a single server can be configured with several server roles. However, in larger organizations, you can spread different server roles across multiple email servers to enhance email security and speed up email relay. The roles are: Client Access Server (CAS) Mailbox Hub Transport (Hub) Edge Transport (Edge) Unified Messaging (UM) A single Exchange server can run all of the server roles simultaneously with the exception of the Edge role, which must run on its own Exchange server

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EXCHANGE SERVER 2007 ROLES

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CLIENT ACCESS SERVER (CAS) ROLE


Allows email clients access to their mailboxes using

OWA (HTTP/HTTPS), POP3, IMAP4, Outlook Anywhere (RPC over HTTP/HTTPS), ActiveSync, and MAPI (RPC).

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MAILBOX ROLE
Responsible for hosting and providing access to the

databases that contain mailboxes and public folders.

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HUB TRANSPORT (HUB) ROLE


Handles all email relay within the organization and

is functionally equivalent to the MTA and MDA in a generic email system. Exchange Server 2007 configuration stored in Active Directory to direct and restrict email flow.

Integrated with the Active Directory service and uses

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EDGE TRANSPORT (EDGE) ROLE


Functionally equivalent to the smart host role in a generic

email. It offers antivirus and antispam protection to provide extra security at the edge or perimeter of your network. For added security, the Edge role cannot directly access Active Directory. Instead, only the information from Active Directory that is used to filter emails is sent from Hub servers to Edge servers via a special protocol called EdgeSync. Edge Transport is usually located on the perimeter network or DMZ. Edge Transport is optional.
Can be handled by other devices such as a Barracuda box

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EDGE TRANSPORT (EDGE) ROLE

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UNIFIED MESSAGING (UM) ROLE


Allows users to access email, voice mail, and fax

messages from a MAPI client, OWA, smart phone, or telephone.

UM is optional

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TS: EXCHANGE SERVER 2007, CONFIGURING (70-236) EXAM


For more information about the TS: Exchange Server

2007, Configuring (70-236) Exam, visit the following website:


http://www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/exams/70-236.mspx

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CHAPTER SUMMARY

Email is composed using an MUA on an email client and relayed to the recipients mailbox using MTAs and MDAs on email servers.
For email to be routed across the Internet, MX records must exist in DNS to locate destination email servers that host mailboxes for recipients. Email clients and servers communicate using email protocols such as SMTP/ESMTP, IMAP4, POP3, HTTP, RPC, and ActiveSync. Different protocols are used to perform different parts of the email relay process.

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CHAPTER SUMMARY
There were three widely used versions of Exchange

Server before Exchange Server 2007: Exchange Server 5.5, Exchange Server 2000, and Exchange Server 2003. Each version has different features and support.

Exchange Server 2007 offers better performance,

additional security, enhanced tools, and more features than previous versions of Exchange Server. Server 2007 uses five server roles to define the services that are available on a particular Exchange server: CAS, Mailbox, Hub, Edge, and UM.

To enhance deployment and scalability, Exchange