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Visual aids

Flight take off

 Controlled
 Operating control tower
 Two way radio required
 Uncontrolled
 No Tower
 No radio required
Wind direction indicators
 Wind Indicators
 Wind Sock
 Wind Tee
 Tetrahedron
 Segmented Circle
 VFR and IFR
Airport Markings
Airport Markings
 Displaced Threshold
 Obstruction
 May be available for taxi
 White line marks the
Beginning of landing portion
TAXIWAY Markings
 Taxiway
 Continuous yellow stripe
 Hold lines
 Wherever Taxiway intersects runway
 You are clear of runway on the side with the solid
Airport Signs
 Mandatory Instruction
 Entrance to runway,
critical area or
prohibited area
 Red with white letters
or numbers
Airport Signs
 Location Signs
 Identify Taxiway or
runway where you are
currently located
 Identify runway
boundary or ILS critical
area for area exiting
 Black background with
yellow writing and
Airport Signs
 Direction Sign
 Indicate directions of
taxiways leading out of
an intersection
 Yellow background,
Black writing
 Arrows
Airport Signs
 Destination Signs
 Indicate general
direction to location on
 FBO, Military or
international areas
 Yellow background,
black writing, arrow
Airport Signs
 Information Sign
 Advise you of “good to
know” information
 Areas that cannot be
seen from control tower
 Radio Frequencies
 Noise Abatement
 Yellow Background,
Black inscription
Airport Signs
 Runway Distance
 Distance remaining
information to pilots during
takeoff and landing
 Located on sides of runway
 Thousands of feet
 Turbojet aircraft
 Black with White writing
Airport Lighting
 In – Runway Lighting
 Centerline, touchdown zone, and taxiway turnoff
 Centerline Lights
 White until 3,000 ft
 3,000 – 1,000 ft. alternating red and white
 Last 1,000 ft. RED
 Taxiway Lighting
 Blue lights that line both side of taxiway
 Omni directional
 Can be green
Airport Lighting
Lighting Continued…
Light Gun Signals
Color and Type Aircraft on Surface Aircraft in Flight

Steady Green Cleared for takeoff Cleared to Land

Flashing Green Cleared to taxi Return for Landing

Steady Red Stop Give way to other aircraft

and continue circling

Flashing Red Taxi clear of runway Airport unsafe – do not

Flashing White Return to starting point N/A
on airport
Alternating Exercise Extreme Exercise Extreme
Red/Green Caution Caution
Airport Beacons
 Four Types
 Civilian
 Water
 Military Airport
 Heliport
 Used to ID airports at
 Daylight Operation
 <1,000 ft. and 3 miles
visibility – which is
Airport Lighting
 Airport Beacon
 Used to guide pilots to
lighted airports
 Green/White: Civilian
 Green/yellow: water
 Green/2 white: Military
 Green/yellow/white:
Airport Lighting
 Runway Edge Lights
 Single row of white lights bordering each side of runway and lights
identifying the runway threshold
 Three Intensity Levels: High Intensity (HIRLs), Medium Intensity
runway lights (MIRLs), and Low intensity runway lights (LIRLs)
 Some are Pilot Controlled, some ATC controlled
 Runway End Identifier Lights (REILS)
 High intensity white strobe lights placed on each side of the runway to
mark the threshold
 Runway Lights
 White
 Taxiway Lights
 Blue
Obstruction Lighting
 On and Off airport
 Day and night
 Towers
 Buildings
 Powerlines
 Bright red or white