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Introduction FIDIC (What and Why?) FIDIC Publications FIDIC Conditions of Contracts for Works Contracts FIDIC Contracts Comparison Matrix Discussion on topics like;Limitation of Liability Third Party Liability Indemnity Delay Damages Defects Liability Termination of Contract Claims

FIDIC is the International Federation of Consulting Engineers Its members are national associations of consulting engineers. Was founded in 1913 by Belgium, France and Switzerland HQs is in Genve, FIDIC membership covers 94 Countries as of today. FIDIC publishes international standard forms of contracts for works and for clients, consultants, sub-consultants, joint ventures and representatives, together with related materials such as standard pre-qualification forms. FIDIC also publishes business practice documents such as policy statements, position papers, guidelines, training manuals and training resource kits in the areas of management systems and business processes. Organises workshops and training programmes

The first edition of FIDIC was published in 1957- subsequent edition in 1969 Third edition in 1977 Yellow book for mechanical and electrical works -1963- second edition in 1980 4th Edition (1987) Red Book required the Engineer to act impartially when taking action or decisions previous editions assumed implicitly. 1996 a Supplement was published option of DAB payment by lumpsum basis than by reference to BOQ 1995 Orange Book Conditions of Contract for Design Build and Turnkey Orange Book dispensed with the role of Engineer provided for Employer Representative

The express requirement for being impartial was relinquished- Employer representative had to determine the matter fairly, reasonably and in accordance with the contract. Archaic rule submission to Engineer for Decision was eliminated and DAB was introduced. 1994 FIDIC established a task group to update the Red and Yellow Book in light of development in International Construction Industry.
Role of Engineer -

Use of common definitions in Red and Yellow Book Balance the interest of familiarity with pre-existing terminology update.

In 1999 FIDIC introduced the new Red book, the new Yellow Book, Silver Book ( EPC/Turnkey Projects) and the Green Book (short form of Contract)


covers almost all the major issues that needs to be addressed under a contract have a consistent and easy to follow structure

distribute the risks fairly amongst parties

designed by a third party (Consultant) but not an Employer; therefore conditions are more objective and fair can be adopted easily for many type of investments projects


FIDIC has committees formed of international members to improve its publications. Committees do continuous monitoring to improve and/or revise the existing publications (contract types, guidelines, etc.) and to introduce new books.

Very well known by international Contractors and Consultants, therefore creates confidence and encourages tenderers.

Some of the International Institutions using FIDIC

World Bank (WB)

European Bank of Restructuring and Development (EBRD)

European Investment Bank (EIB)

European Commission (EC)

KfW Bankengruppe (KfW) Islamic Development Bank (IDB) African Development Bankas (ADB) Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Composition of FIDIC Contracts

FIDIC contracts consists mainly from:

Contract Agreement;
Letter of Tender; Letter of Acceptance; Conditions of Contract; Specifications;

Schedules; Dispute Adjudication Agreement.

FIDIC Conditions of Contract

General Conditions of Contract and Particular Conditions of Contract .
The general conditions are intended remain unchanged for every project
particular conditions of contract are the result of negotiation between the parties and are designed to modify or delete some of the general conditions

FIDIC Publications

Conditions of Contract for Construction for Building and Engineering Works Designed by the Employer; 1999 Edition RED BOOK Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design-Build for Electrical and Mechanical Plant, and for Building and Engineering, Designed by the Contractor; 1999 Edition YELLOW BOOK Conditions of Contract for EPC Turn-key Projects (First Edition, 1999) - SILVER BOOK EPC Turn-key : Engineering Procurement Construction Short Form of Contract 1st Ed (1999 Green Book) GREEN BOOK

FIDIC Publications

Conditions of Contract for Construction (Multilateral Development Bank Harmonised Ed. Version 3: June 2010). For Building and Engineering Works designed by the Employer. Harmonised RED BOOK

Conditions of Contract for Design, Build and Operate Projects (1st Ed, 2008) - GOLD BOOK

FIDIC Other Publications

Business Integrity

Risk Management
Quality Management

Environment Management
Sustainability Guide FIDIC Contracts Guide to the Construction, Plant and Design-Build and EPC/Turnkey Contracts


FIDIC Publications Conditions of contract for works

Design and Engineering (incl. BoQs) is done by Employer or Employers Representative. Tenderers fill in their unit prices into the existing BoQs. Final amount is not fixed, payments are done based on the real amounts executed. (Exceptions are available eg: lump-sum conracts)


FIDIC Publications Conditions of contract for works

Employer carries the risk for contract amount increases. The better the design, the flawless the project implementation. Tender evaluations are relatively simpler.


FIDIC Publications Conditions of contract for works

Employer prepares only the Employers Requirements.

Employer Requirements includes only; Draft layout, Operational Parameters, Technical Specifications and Financial Proposal Format (Schedule of Prices).
Tenderers submit their technical proposals together with their financial proposals. Technical proposals cover at minimum methodology, basic design and drawings, bill of and similar supporting documents.


FIDIC Publications Conditions of contract for works

Generally lump-sum price contracts are used. Price increase and other risks are distributed amongst both parties.

Tender evaluation process is more complicated and requires technical expertise.

Two-party contracts (No Engineer)

Employer defines design parameters, quality measures and functional requirements.

Tenderers submit comprehensive technical proposals supported with designs. Lump-sum contracts are used and all risk lies with the Contractor.

More suitable for projects like; refinery, petrochemical facilities, power plants. Implemented if the employer foresees high risk for the supply and assembly of mechanical and electrical components. Tender evaluations are very complicated and requires continuous negotiations.


For low contract values (< 500,000 USD)

Simple but repetitive works

Short term assignments Usually Employer takes over the design responsibility.

Comparison Matrix -1
Parameters RED YELLOW SILVER GREEN Design Employer Contractor Employer Employer or Contractor

Design Approval

Only Contractors Design (If any)

Engineer approves or rejects before executions N.a.

Only Contractors Design (If any

Financial Proposal

Unit Price

Lump-sum Price

Lump-sum Price

Unit Price / Lump-sum Price

Payment Schedules

Payment Calendar / Measured quantities Measured quantities Payment percentages Payment percentages or Percentages No. Employer 21 representative may assign if needed.




Generally No

Comparison Matrix-2

Significant number of Relatively less and Tests during Construction tests simpler

Generally no tests

Limited or no tests

Tests at completion

Relatively less and simpler

Very detailed and complicated performance tests

Very detailed and complicated performance tests.

Limited or no tests

Risk Distribution

12-14 April 2011 Employer carries the design risks Distributed

Contractor carries the risks Varies


FIDIC Sub- Contracts

The contractor is responsible for all the acts and defaults of the subcontractors
Unless otherwise agreed the contractor cannot subcontract the whole of the Works; The contractor remains wholly responsible to the employer for the acts of that subcontractor as if those acts had been carried out by him; The prior consent of the engineer is required1 for all subcontractors apart from suppliers and subcontractors named in the contract; The contractor must give the engineer 28-days notice of both the intended and actual commencement date of any subcontractors work; and The subcontract must contain suitable provisions entitling the employer to require the subcontract to be assigned to him in the event of termination. (..Red Book)

FIDIC Sub- Contracts

Silver Book-the contractor only has to notify the employer of the appointment of a subcontractor giving details of that parties experience and when they are to start Red and Pink Book - contains assignment provision Gold Book -if the subcontractor is entitled to any relief from risk on broader terms than those specified between contractor and employer, then those additional circumstances shall not serve as an excuse for nonperformance by the contractor. Conditions of Subcontract for Construction (First Edition, 2011). For building and engineering works designed by the Employer.


Contract Clauses

Limitation of Liability
Clause 17.6 of FIDIC Limitation of Liability "Neither Party shall be liable to the other Party for loss of use of any Works, loss of profit, loss of any contract or for any indirect or consequential loss or damage which may be suffered by the other Party in connection with the Contract... Loss that can be recovered by Contractors under FIDIC direct loss and expense: if these fall within FIDIC's definition of 'cost' - "all expenditure reasonably incurred (or to be incurred) by the Contractor whether on or off the Site, including overhead and similar charges but [not including] profit" - and are directly linked to the clause giving rise to the claim, they can be claimed; preliminaries: as above, these are also recoverable; overheads: also recoverable the cost of running the business as distinct from general site costs is expressly allowed for in the definition of Cost; loss of productivity/disruption: in principle this is recoverable, but in practice proving this loss is difficult. The 'measured mile' approach compares work in disrupted and undisrupted conditions, with the difference between the two being the disruption factor;

profit: this is not recoverable, unless expressly allowed for in the Contract. Profit is excluded, from both the definition of Cost and by Clause 17.6; interest: recoverable; the Contractor has an express right to interest on any unpaid sums under the standard FIDIC forms; finance charges: recoverable - under English law, it is possible to claim finance charges as part of a claim for direct loss and expense; inflation/exchange rate fluctuation: not recoverable - increased costs resulting from inflation/exchange rate fluctuation are classed as 'consequential loss' and are therefore excluded by Clause 17.6; claims preparation costs: may be recoverable under English law, these can be recovered in principle but such claims are hard to establish; lost commercial opportunity and business interruption: generally not recoverable.

FIDIC exclusion clause expressly excludes "loss of profit". In addition, it excludes indirect and consequential loss The McCain Case In McCain, the purchaser had bought a system ("System") for removing hydrogen sulphide from the biogas produced by its waste water system, so that the biogas could be used to generate heat and electricity in a combined heat and power plant. In addition to using the electricity for its own purposes, the purchaser intended to generate revenue by selling Certificates of Renewable Energy Production to third parties. the System was found to be defective and McCain claimed damages from the supplier

Care to be taken while Drafting Exclusion Clause

The damages claim included:

McCain CaseCont

the cost of buying a replacement system; loss of revenue from the System (from selling Certificates of Renewable Energy Production); the extra cost of buying electricity (since the purchaser could not generate its own); the cost of contractors and other personnel; the cost of mitigation efforts; and various other smaller claims, including the cost of staff time to resolve the issues.

Limitation of Liability Contn.

The total liability of the Contractor to the Employer under or in connection with the contract is limited to Contract Price ( which is the FIDIC Default position. Define gross negligence and willful misconduct an act or omission done with reckless disregard, whether consciously or not, for the consequences of the act or omission

Third Party Liability

Ensure appropriate clause is drafted to take care of third party liability
Is difficult to cap

Seek indemnity from Client

WesternGeco Ltd v. ATP Oil & Gas (UK) Ltd

FIDIC '99 provides for a right of objection under Clause 5.2 that is conditional upon the contractor's receipt of an indemnity from the proposed nominated entity. indemnify the contractor against and from any negligence or misuse of goods... Silent on Salient Points;

What the key provisions of an indemnity requirement are? How it is called or triggered? Is there any limit on liability? For how long does it last? What about contributory negligence? Does the Engineer administer the process? (clearly not in the absence of clauses saying so) therefore; Who decides on the allocation of monies? Is the contractor effectively 'self insuring' and if so, is the company financially sound enough to do that?

Delay Damages 8.7

Delay damages are pre-quantified damages which the parties to a contract agree shall be payable in case of a breach of such contract. DD shall be the sum stated in Appendix to the Tender shall be paid every day until such default continues subject to a cap. The DD does not relieve the contractor from performing his obligations to complete the Works Excusable non Excusable Compensable versus uncompensable Penalty

The Defects Notification period as ruled in clause 11 of FIDIC is an additional period of time during which the duty to perform continues to exist. Clause 11.1 and 11.2 Contractor is under obligation to carry out any work which becomes instructed by the Engineer or Employer, to the extent that a defect occurs which is or is not attributable to the Contractor Legal Defect Liability only starts after acceptance of Works when the Engineer issues Performance Certificate. Eg. French Decennial Liability Clause The duration of the Defects Notification Period is stated in the Appendix to the Tender or Particular Conditions as the case may be. Ends automatically after the expiry of the fixed period of time even if Performance Certificate is not issued.

Defects Liability

Defects Liability
Commencement Date Taking Over Certificate Defects Notification Period

Performance Certificate

(Design, if any) & Build

Defects Liability Period

Additional Contractual Remedies

Legal Remedy subject to time bars

Defects Liability
The limitation period for remedies concerning defective works is
Poland France Decennial Liability Romania

2yrs (5yrs for Buildings or similar construction)

2yrs 1yrs warranty of Performance 10 yrs Decennial Liability cover the whole life cycle of the Building

Clause 15 deals with Termination by Employer Termination for convenience

Termination of Contract

Termination for Cause Contractor not entitled to terminate a Contract for convenience,

Sub-clause 9.4(b): failure to pass tests on completion. Sub-clause 11.4(c): failure to remedy defects.

Sub-clause 19.6: optional termination payment and release (force

majeure or exceptional events).

Sub-clause 19.7: release from performance under the law.

a) The Employer shall be entitled to terminate the Contract if the Contractor: (a) fails to comply with Sub-clause 4.2 [Performance Security] or with a notice under Sub-clause 15.1 [Notice to Correct]. b) abandons the Works or otherwise plainly demonstrates the intention not to continue performance of his obligations under the Contract c) without reasonable excuse fails:
a) (i) to proceed with the Works in accordance with Clause 8 [Commencement, Delays and Suspension], or b) (ii) to comply with a notice issued under Sub-clause 7.5 [Rejection] or Sub-Clause 7.6 [Remedial Work], within 28 days after receiving it.

Termination for Cause

d) subcontracts the whole of the Works or assigns the Contract without the required agreement

e) becomes bankrupt or insolvent, goes into liquidation, has a receiving or administration order made against him f) gives or offers to give (directly or indirectly) to any person any bribe, gift, gratuity, commission or other thing of value, as an inducement or reward: In any of these events or circumstances, the Employer may, upon giving 14 days notice to the Contractor, terminate the Contract and expel the Contractor from the Site. However, in the case of sub-paragraph (e) or (f ), the Employer may by notice terminate the Contractimmediately.

Termination for convenience ( without cause)

The Employer shall be entitled to terminate the Contract, at any time for the Employers convenience, by giving 28 days notice termination to the Contract Employer to return the Performance Security.

After this termination, the Contractor shall proceed in accordance with Sub-clause 16.3[Cessation of Work and Removal of Contractors Equipment] and shall be paid in accordance with Sub-clause 19.6 [Optional Termination, Payment and Release].

Suspension by Contractor
16.1 deals with Suspension
If the Engineer fails to certify ( issue of interim payment), fails to comply with employers financial arrangement or payment give notice of 21 days suspend work or reduce rate of work Where the Contractor suffers delay and/or costs contractor entitled to EOT and payment of cost plus reasonable profit.

After receiving notice Engineer shall proceed in accordance with clause 3.5 [Determinations]


Termination by Contractor

a) Contractor does not receive the reasonable evidence within 42 days after giving notice under sub-clause 16.1 and 2.4 b) Engineer fails, within 56 days after receiving Statement and supporting documents, to issue the relevant Payment Certificates. c) Contractor does not receive Interim Payment with 42 days after the expiry of the time stated in 14.2 [payments] d) Employer substantially fails to perform his obligations under the contract e) Employer fails to with sub clause 1.6 [contract agreement] or 1.7 [assignment] f) A prolonged suspension 8.11 g) Employer becomes bankrupt or goes into liquidation



FIDIC contracts are aimed at the early resolution of any queries at the time when the claim arises. Procedure involved is;-


to give notice (in time) to give particulars of the claim (in time) to wait for Engineers approval or disapproval to negotiate and settle the claim to wait for Engineers determination (in case of failure to reach settlement) to refer a dispute to the DAB (in case of dissatisfaction)

FIDIC forms of Contract Provide for

Cost claims Cost and profit claims and


extension of Time for Completion (EOT) claims

Cost is a defined term meaning all expenditure reasonably incurred (SubClause including overheads and similar charges but no profit.

There is no express definition of a claim in FIDIC forms of Contract a claim in practice is generally taken to be an assertion for (additional)

payment due to a party or for extension of the Time for Completion

an assertion of a right or a remedy.

The Contractor must provide to Employer's Engineer written notice of the claim for additional payment and time extension within 28 days after becoming aware of the occurrence of the event giving rise to claim (SubClause 20.1). If the Contractor fails to comply with this notice requirement, his entitlement to the claim shall lapse The Notice is Important because; everyone involved becomes aware that there is an event or circumstance where extra time or payment may be owed to the Contractor proper contemporary records must then be kept and agreed, to avoid future argument alternative measures may also be possible to reduce the effects the matter may possibly be resolved at an early date if the event or circumstance turns out to be of insignificant effect, then it is not necessary to follow up the notice with a formal claim.


If the contractor fails to give notice of claim within such period of 28 days, the time for completion shall not be extended, the Contractor shall not be entitled additional payment, and the Employer shall be discharged from all liability in connection with claim English Courts have confirmed their approval of the condition precedent. In the case of Multiplex construction v/s Honeywell Control Systems the Judge held that Contractual terms requiring a contractor to give prompt notice of delays serve a valuable purpose; such notice enables matters to be investigated while they are still current. Furthermore, such notice sometimes gives the employer the opportunity to withdraw instructions when the financial consequences become apparent.

Is there a possibility that a DAB or Arbitral Tribunal might decline to construe the time bar as a condition precedent Applicable law- Civil Law Countries For instance, the time bars can be challenged under German Law, German courts will interpret the Contractors duty to give notice not as condition precedent but an obligation of the Contractor Art 246 (1) of the UAE civil code says that
The contract must be performed in accordance with its contents, and in a manner consistent with the requirement of good faith. The Answer is ..


The claim notice must indicate basic details, in order to inform the Engineer about the scope of the claim and to enable him to give instructions, if necessary. The notice shall therefore meet the following requirements:
describe the event or circumstance the notice need not state time or amount claimed or contractual basis of claim notice shall comply with Cl 1.3, i.e. in writing and properly delivered progress reports - Cl 4.21(f) - must list notices given


Engineer will approve or disapprove a claim to determine it facts to be considered;-


reported in the monthly reports reported in contemporary records reported in labour reports stated in the claim notification obtained at site visits and inspections reported in early warning notifications concerning probable future events which may effect progress of the works and the contract price reported in the Programme reported in its own records

The meaning and definition of a claim;

Claims Procedure

The legal basis of claims, and for that matter counterclaims;

The process by which claims & counterclaims should be formulated and managed; The parties rights and obligations under the Contract or in relation thereto; and The manner in which these rights and obligations might be protected or exercised under the Contract or in relation thereto.

give a notice of intention to claim within 28 days of the event giving rise to the claim keep contemporary records (by the contractor); inspect the records (by the engineer); provide authority to instruct the contractor to keep further contemporary records (by the engineer); within 28 days of the notice or an agreed period, submit particulars of the claim in respect of amount and grounds upon which it is based (by the contractor); interim and accumulated accounts to be submitted for continuing effects (by the contractor); final accounts to be submitted at end (by the contractor); a copy of accounts to be sent to the employer, by the contractor, if so required by the engineer .

Claims Procedure

1. Step 1: An event or circumstance occurs with the potential of a claim by the Employer against the Contractor under any clause of the Contract Conditions or otherwise in connection with the Contract. 2. Step 2: The Employer or the Engineer should give notice and particulars of the claim to the Contractor. This notice should be given with the following in mind: 2.1 It should be given as soon as practicable after the Employer became aware of the event or circumstance. 2.2 A notice relating to an extension of the Defects Notification Period should be given before the expiry of such period. 2.3 Notice is not required for payments due under Sub-Clauses 4.19, 4.20, or for other services requested by the Contractor. 2.4 Supporting substantiating particulars should also be submitted with the notice specifying the basis of the claim.

Steps involved Employer Claim 2.5

3. Step 3: The Engineer should then proceed in accordance with Sub-Clause 3.5 to agree or determine (i) the amount (if any) which the Employer is entitled to be paid by the Contractor, and/or (ii) the extension (if any) of the DNP in accordance with Sub-Clause 11.3.

Steps involved Employer Claim 2.5

4. Step 4: The Engineer should consult with each Party in an endeavour to reach agreement, failing which he is required to make a fair determination in accordance with the Contract.
5. Step 5: If agreement between the parties is achieved, the Engineer is required to give a notice with supporting particulars. Otherwise, he is required to give a notice of his determination with supporting particulars.

6. Step 6: The amount determined may be included as a deduction in the Contract Price and Payment Certificates. The Employer shall only be entitled to set off against or make any deduction from an amount certified in a Payment Certificate, or to otherwise claim against the Contractor.

Steps involved Employer Claim 2.5

7. Step 7: If the Engineers determination is not acceptable to any of the Parties, the dispute arising should be resolved in accordance with SubClauses 20.2 to 20.8.

Steps - Contractors Claim- 20.1

1. Step 1: An event or circumstance occurs with the potential of a claim under any clause of the Contract Conditions or otherwise in connection with the Contract. 2. Step 2: The Contractor should give notice of the claim to the Engineer describing the event or circumstance giving rise to the claim. This notice should be given with the following in mind: 2.1 It should be given as soon as practicable; and not later than 28 days after the Contractor became aware, or should have become aware, of the event or circumstance. Failure to do so is fatal to the claim. 2.2 All supporting particulars for the claim, as relevant to such event or circumstance, should also be submitted. 2.3 Any other notices required by the Contract should also be submitted.

Steps - Contractors Claim- 20.1

3. Step 3: The Contractor should keep substantiating contemporary records, which the Engineer may monitor and/or instruct the Contractor to keep further contemporary records. 4. Step 4: Within 42 days of the event, the Contractor should submit a fully detailed claim which includes full supporting particulars of the claim. The period may be varied if approved by the Engineer. If the event or circumstance giving rise to the claim has a continuing effect: (a) this fully detailed claim shall be considered as interim; (b) the Contractor should submit further interim claims and any further particulars at monthly intervals, giving the accumulated effect; and (c) the Contractor should submit a final claim within 28 days after the end of the effects resulting from the event, or within such other period approved by the Engineer.

Steps - Contractors Claim- 20.1

5. Step 5: Within 42 days after receiving a claim or any further particulars supporting a previous claim, the Engineer should respond with approval or disapproval and detailed comments. He may also request any necessary further particulars, but shall nevertheless give his response on the principles of the claim within such time. This period may be varied if approved by the Contractor.

6. Step 6: Substantiated amounts for any claim should be included in each Payment Certificate. It is to be noted that the requirements of Sub-Clause 20.1 are in addition to those of any other Sub-Clause which may apply to the claim and failure to comply preventing or prejudicing proper investigation should be taken into account by the Engineer.
7. Step 7: The Engineer should then proceed in accordance with Sub-Clause 3.5 to agree or determine (i) the extension of time (if any) and/or (ii) the additional payment (if any) to which the Contractor is entitled under the Contract.

Steps - Contractors Claim- 20.1

8. Step 8: The Engineer should consult with each Party in an endeavour to reach agreement, failing which he is required to make a fair determination in accordance with the Contract. 9. Step 9: If agreement between the parties is achieved, the Engineer is required to give a notice with supporting particulars. Otherwise, he is required to give a notice of his determination with supporting particulars. 10. Step 10: Each Payment Certificate shall include such amounts for any claim as have been reasonably substantiated as due under the relevant provision of the Contract. 11. Step 11: If the Engineers determination is not acceptable to any of the Parties, the dispute arising should be resolved in accordance with Sub-Clauses 20.2 to 20.8.

Generally accepted definition

Counter Claim

an assertion made by a party, which can conveniently be examined and

disposed of in an action originally initiated by the other party.

a good example of a counterclaim is where a delay event causes the contractor to claim that he has been wrongfully denied an extension of time by the engineer and the same delay event gives rise to the employers counterclaim for liquidated damages

A Claim under the Contract

Types of Claim

A claim arising out of or in connection with the contract

A claim under the principles of Applicable law A claim arising out of the principle of quantum merit
A claim for ex-gratia payment

FIDIC Procedure for Contractors Claims

New Red/Yellow Books 28 day Notice of Claim to Engineer Silver Book 28 day Notice of Claim to Employer

Clause 20.1 Contractors Claims

42 day Fully Detailed Claim to Engineer

42 day Fully Detailed Claim to Employer

Final Claim 28 days after end of effects

Final Claim 28 days after end of effects

42 days after receipt of claim Engineers Response

42 days after receipt of claim Employers Response

Clause 3.5 Determinations

Clause 3.5 Engineer to Agree or Determine Clause 3.5 Employer to Agree or Determine

Agreement/Determination given effect unless revised under Clause 20

Given effect unless Contractors Notice of Dissatisfaction 14 days of receipt 66

Introduction to FIDIC and its Dispute Resolution Provisions

FIDIC Procedure for Employers Claims
New Red/Yellow Books Silver Book Employer gives notice and particulars to Contractor

Clause 2.5 Employers Claims Clause 3.5 Determinations

Employer or Engineer gives notice and particulars to Contractor Clause 3.5 Engineer to Agree or Determine Agreement/Determination given effect unless revised under Clause 20

Clause 3.5 Employer to Agree or Determine Given effect unless Contractors Notice of Dissatisfaction 14 days of receipt

Clauses 20.2 and 20.4 (See previous diagram for full Clause 20.4 procedure) Clause 20.5 Clause 20.6

Reference to Dispute Adjudication Board (DAB) (1 or 3 people) Amicable Settlement stage ICC Arbitration within 56 days after Notice of Dissatisfaction


FIDIC Procedure for Contractors Claims

Clause 20.2 Reference to Dispute Adjudication Board (DAB) (1 or 3 people) DAB Decision within 84 days of reference No DAB Decision within 84 days of reference

Clause 20.4

No Notice of Dissatisfaction within 28 days of Decision DAB Decision final and binding

Notice of Dissatisfaction within 28 days of Decision

Notice of Dissatisfaction within 28 days after 84 days of reference

Clause 20.5

Amicable Settlement stage

Clause 20.6

ICC Arbitration within 56 days after Notice of Dissatisfaction



Risk sharing


Dispute Resolution

Most Frequent Clauses - Claims

Clause 4.12 Unforeseeable physical conditions
Clause 2.1. Right of Access to the Site

Clause 1.9. Delayed Drawings or Instructions.

Clause 13.7 Adjustment for changes in legislation Clause 8.1. Commencement of the Works

Unforeseeable Physical Conditions

Site Data 4.10

Clause 4.10 The Employer shall have available to the Contractor for his information, prior to the Base Date, all relevant data in the Employers possession on sub-surface and hydrological conditions at the Site, including environmental aspects. The Employer shall similarly make available to the Contractor all such data which come into the Employers possession after the Base Date. The Contractor shall be responsible for interpreting all such data.

Employer is required to make available to the contractor all relevant data in his possession on sub-surface conditions before and after the Base Date Employers obligation to provide information does not end after the tender submission

Site Data 4.10

To the extent which was practicable (taking into account of cost and time), the Contractor shall be deemed to have obtained all necessary information as to risks, contingencies and other circumstances which may influence or affect the Tender of Works. To the same extent, the Contractor shall be deemed to have inspected and examined the Site, its surroundings, the above data and other available information.. .the form and nature of the Site, including sub-surface conditions, the hydrological and climatic conditions,

Contractor is deemed to have inspected and examined the site only to the extent as far as practicable, with cost and time considerations

Sufficiency of the Accepted Contract Amount 4.11

Clause 4.11: The Contractor shall be deemed to: (a) have satisfied himself as to the correctness and sufficiency of the Accepted Contract Amount,

(b) have based the Accepted Contract Amount on the data, interpretations, necessary information, inspections, examinations and satisfaction as to all relevant matters referred to in Sub-Clause 4.10

Contractor is only responsible for interpreting the data provided to him

Unforeseeable Physical Conditions 4.12

Clause 4.12: Physical conditions means natural physical conditions and man-made and other physical obstructions and pollutants, which the Contractor encounters at the Site when executing the Works, including sub-surface and hydro-logical conditions but excluding climatic conditionsIf the Contractor encounters adverse physical conditions which he considers to have been unforeseeable, the Contractor shall give notice to the Engineer as soon as practicable.

Employer carries the risk of physical conditions that could have been unforeseeable by an experienced contractor at the date of tender

Foreseeable, Foreseeable Events

capable of being anticipated or predictable. reasonably foreseeable means whether a reasonable person foresee the results of an act.




what an experienced contractor can reasonably foresee with the aid of investigative measures (desk studies, site inspections and ground investigations). ground conditions are often unforeseen because of incomplete assessment due to limited investigation, insufficient data available and limited resources.

a more risk-taking process than unforeseen relates to something that is technically beyond the contractors control Cannot be completely eliminated (regardless of how experienced the contractor is and/or how much investigations they carried out)

Ground Investigation Reports

Ground investigations can never fully disclose all the details of the underground conditions. (Risks of unknown ground conditions can never be 100% eliminated) Site data contained in GI reports is often of a significant contractual importance in disputes related to unforeseen ground conditions Many disputes related to the information provided and/or representation made by the Employer.
Whether the GI information forms partof the contract documents? Whether information provided by the employer constitute a representation as to the true ground conditions?

Cooperative Insurance Society Limited v Henry Boot Scotland Limited and Others [2002] EWHC 1270 (TCC)
The TCC was requested to rule on whether the site investigation (SI) reports formed part of the contract document. The contract defined Contract Document as:

No reference to SI reports in theContract.

the Contract Drawings, the Contract Bills, the Employers Requirements, the Contractors Proposals, the CDP Analysis, the Articles of Agreement and the Conditions, the Appendix and the Supplementary Appendix

Judge Richard Seymour Q.C. held: Such reports could not be incorporated into the contract by way of an implied term since it was not expressly incorporated as part of the contract document. No Entitlement

Bacal Construction v Northamption Development Corp. (1975) 8 BLR 88

Bacals foundation design was based on subsurface conditions / assumptions indicated in borehole data provided by the Employer Bacal submitted the foundation design as part of its tender and formed part of the contract documentation under an express provision in the contract Sand & Clay turns out to be rock (different soil type) which caused part of the foundations to be re-designed where additional works were required.

Contractors may recover loss incurred by incorrect subsoil information if such information was a condition or warranty in the contract.

Any SI documents must be expressly incorporated as part of the contract document in order for the Contractor to exercise his rights under the contract (implied term or warranty).

Right of Access to Site 2.1

The Employer shall give the Contractor right of access to, and possession of, all parts of the Site within the time (or times) stated in the Appendix to Tender. If no time is stated in the Appendix to Tender..such time as may be required to enable the Contractor to proceed in accordance with the programme submitted under Sub-clause 8.3 [Programme] If the Contractor suffers delay/or incurs Cost- Contractor to give notice to Engineer- Contractor shall subject to clause 20.1 [Contractor Claims] be entitled to EOT and Cost and reasonable Profit After receiving notice Engineer shall proceed to determine these matters [3.5 Determinations]

Right of Access -Note to Remember

Right to Access refers to the right to enter the site and must not be confused with access routes Possession refers to the Contractor taking control and responsibility of the Site The Appendix to the Tender will state the number of days from the Employer will access to the Site from the Commencement Date. When the Employer issues Letter of Acceptance he is fixing the latest calendar date for providing the possession of the site. Contractor takes Possession of the Site Contractor assumes responsibility for matters such as safety, security and insurance If access or possession is to be restricted different parts of the site at different times Shared Possession ( Possession is not exclusive)

Delayed Drawings or Instructions 1.9

The Contractor shall give notice to the Engineer whenever the Works are likely to be delayed or disrupted if any necessary drawing or instruction is not issued to the Contractor within a particular time, which shall be reasonable.

If the Engineer fails to issue the Drawings within a particular time according to the Contractors schedule, the Employer should be responsible to give compensation to the Contractor, providing that the Contractor has followed the procedure and fulfilled the requirements by giving notice to the Engineer and within the time frame stipulated in the Contract. This Sub-Clause only mentions within a time which is reasonable. Both parties should pay attention to this sentence as this might cause different interpretation lead to dispute.

They discover too late that a drawing or instruction is needed to complete the works. The contractor has to take into account lead times to procure certain items, the details of which may only be apparent in the drawing or instruction; They then do not draft a notice which sets out the details of the drawing or instruction, nor do they include details why and by when it should be issued; They generally do not allow the engineer a reasonable time to issue the drawing or instruction. This is a classic example where the contractor tries to make urgency on his part the engineers problem. Of course, the term reasonable denotes a more factual enquiry to establish whether the contractor is the author of its own misfortune or whether he was proactively managing the contract to avoid this risk.

Contractor typically make the following Mistakes

Adjustment for changes in legislation

The Contract Price shall be adjusted to take account of any increase or decrease in Cost resulting from a change in the Laws of the Country (including the introduction of new Laws and the repeal or modification of existing Laws) or in the judicial or official governmental interpretation of such Laws, made after the Base Date, which affect the Contractor in the performance of obligations under the Contract.

1.13 Compliance with Laws

The Contractor shall, in performing the Contract, comply with applicable Laws. Unless otherwise stated in the

Particular Conditions:

The parties should have the same interpretation on the applicable laws i.e. all regulations established by the law itself instead of the parties obligation under the contract. Parties should not only comply with the laws and regulations issued before the base date, but also to all laws and regulations issued during the course of the project. The FIDIC Contract allocate the risk of change of law to the Employer as far as such law and regulation affect the Contractor in performing their obligation, but the contractor should follow such law and regulation, and submit the notice on the incident (Sub-Clause 1.13 clearly specify that each party is responsible to comply with the applicable Laws).

Commencement of Work Except otherwise specified in the Particular Conditions of Contract, the Commencement Date

shall be the date at which the following precedent conditions have all been fulfilled and the Engineers instruction recording the agreement of both Parties on such fulfilment and instructing to commence the Work is received by the Contractor: (a) signature of the Contract Agreement by both Parties, and if required, approval of the Contract by relevant authorities of the Country; (b) delivery to the Contractor of reasonable evidence of the Employers Financial arrangements (under Sub-Clause 2.4 [ Employers Financial Arrangement ]); (c) except if otherwise specified in the Contract Data, and possession of the Site given to the Contractor together with such permission(s) under (a) of Sub-Clause 1.13 [Compliance with Laws ] as required for the commencement of the Works; (d) receipt by the Contractor of the Advance Payment under Sub-Clause 14.2 [ Advance Payment ] provided that the corresponding bank guarantee has been delivered by the Contractor. If the said Engineers instruction is not received by the Contractor within 180 days from his receipt of the Letter of Acceptance, the Contractor shall be entitled to terminate the Contract under Sub-Clause 16.2 [ Termination by Contractor ].

Sub-Clause 2.1

The Employer shall give the Contractor right of access to, and possession of, all parts of the Site within the time (or times) stated in the Contract Data. If no such time is stated in the Contract Data, the Employer shall give the Contractor right of access to, and possession of, the Site within such times as required to enable the Contractor to proceed without disruption in accordance with the programme submitted under Sub-Clause 8.3 [Programme].

Possession of Site

Sub-Clause 8.1

Except otherwise specified in the Particular Conditions of Contract, the Commencement Date shall be the date at which the following precedent conditions have all been fulfilled ................ (c) except if otherwise specified in the Contract Data, and possession of the Site given to the Contractor together with such permission(s) under (a) of Sub-Clause 1.13 [Compliance with Laws ] as required for the commencement of the Works;

Sub-Clause 8.3

The Contractor shall submit a detailed time programme to the Engineer within 28 days after receiving the notice under Sub-Clause 8.1 [Commencement of Works].


Parties to Contract

Parties of Contract- Employer

Defines the requirements and specifications Provides the construction site Provides the financial resources (usually) Provides the necessary conditions to the Contractor for the execution of works

Parties of a Contract- Contractor

Responsible from executing the works

Provides the necessary securities and guarantees

Held responsible from his and/or his sub contractors actions

Responsible from the quality of the executed works as well as the security of
the construction site

Prepares the interim payment reports

May use sub contractors as allowed in the conditions of the contract

Parties of a Contract Engineer

Assigned by the Employer to represent the Employer

Name, contact information and authorities of an Engineer are stated in relevant parts of the Works Contract After consulting with the Employer and the Contractor, should propose fair and objective solutions for claims. Checks the quality of the appropriateness of the workmanship and the materials used Approves the payment certificates of the Contractor

Engineer Cont.
The parties must carefully note the limitations of the powers delegated by making cross-reference to other parts of the contract conditions The Term Fair Determination is Debatable Employer Engineer relationship is that of an Agent where the Agent has no discretion. This was discussed in JF Finnegan Ltd vs Ford Seller Morris Developments Ltd (No 1, 1991) 53 BLR 38, where the judge held that there was a difference between a certificate issued by an architect which has a binding effect unless and until it is overturned by arbitration or litigation, and the giving of a notice of failure to complete works given by the employer's agent which does not have a binding effect particularly when there is a bona fide dispute as to the validity of the notice.

Particular Conditions-Clauses which must be revised / added

during the preparation of a PCs

Clause 1.3 Communication Should be revised in line with all the communication tools allowed for the specific project. It is important that all parties are aware of correct address to which communication needs to be sent. There is little point in using formal registered address if the registered office address is not used regularly. Care must be taken to ensure that proper procedures are in place to monitor fax machines and communication

Communications . Contn
Construction Partnership UK Ltd Vs. Leek Development Ltd
Judge held that delivery of contractual notice by fax constituted actual delivery for the purpose of contract. That notice had been served by fax on morning of December, 23 2005 and the office was shut that afternoon and owing to Christmas break the fax was not seen until January 3, 2006.

Communications . Contn.
Bermuth Lines V. High Seas Shipping
Arbitration proceedings were served at an email address which appeared in the Lloyds Maritime Directory and on the Company website. The email was received and then ignored by the clerical staff. The Judge held that the service was valid and failings of internal administration were the responsibility of the company concerned

Particular Conditions-Clauses which must be revised / added during the preparation of a PCs

Clause 1.4 Law and Language

If different languages will be used under certain circumstances this should be defined here
Key features of 1.4

The Appendix to Tender shall set out the law of the Contract The Appendix to Tender shall set out the language of the Contract Law and Language governs the Contract and Performance of Works

Law and Language..Contn.

Governing law dictates the law which is applicable when resolving a dispute Problem arises when the Parties to Dispute are from different countries and the performance of works is in different country- which law will govern the Contract.

For this very reason Sub- clause 1.8 of the FIDIC Sub-contract 2011 makes it very clear that the Law of the Country which governs the Main Contract shall apply.

Particular Conditions-Clauses which must be revised / added during the preparation of a PCs

Clause 1.5 Priority of Documents

Amendments and additions can be made here. Please be extremely careful, and do not change unless you have to. The document forming the Contract are to be taken as mutually explanatory of one another. For the purpose of interpretation the priority of the document shall be in accordance with the following Sequence
If any ambiguity or discrepancy is found in the documents, the Engineer shall issue any necessary clarification or instruction.

Clause 1.5 Priority of Documents

a) Contract Agreement (if any) b) Letter of Acceptance; c) Letter of Tender d) Particular Conditions of Contract; e) General Conditions of Contract f) Specifications; g) Drawings and

h) Schedules and any other document forming a part of the Contract Agreement
The priority of documents unless stated otherwise is listed as items (a) to (h) The Engineer shall be responsible for resolving any discrepancy

Priority of Documents..Contn.
The order of Priority documents forming the contract can be significant where complex questions of interpretation arise When there is a conflict in meaning between various contract documents General Conditions low in priority over Particular Conditions ( Common law position)
In Robertson V. French and Glynn Vs Margetson the Courts held that the contract-specific written word chosen by the parties ought to have priority, on questions of interpretation, over the printed words (or standard wording) used by the parties.

Particular Conditions-Clauses which must be revised / added during the preparation of a PCs

Clause 1.6 Contract Agreement Contract Agreement will also be referred as Letter of Acceptance Key features of 1.6

The Parties are to enter into Contract Agreement with 28 days of the receipt by the Contractor of Letter of Acceptance The form of the Contract shall be that annexed to the Particular Conditions. The Employer will be responsible for any stamp duties or other charges.

The general rule of offer and acceptance parties could find themselves under a binding contract without having entered into any of the formalities set out in 1.6.

Particular Conditions-Clauses which must be revised / added during the preparation of a PCs 1.7 Assignment

Neither Party can assign its interest in the Contract without the prior agreement of the Other
This Sub-clause includes a prohibition on assignment, save where (at its absolute discretion) the other party gives its consent, or where the Party interest under the Contract is offered to secure finance ( no consent required) Typically there is a prohibition is on the Contractor and Sub-contractor

Particular Conditions- Contn

Clause 2.1 Right of Access to Site If there are conditions (time constraints or other) related to this issue, this clause should be drafted accordingly. Clause 3.1 Engineers Duty and Authority

The limits of Engineers authority should be clearly defined here.. This article should be in line with the ToR for the Engineers service contract.
Clause 4.1 Contractors General Obligations

If the Contractor has additional obligations, these should be clearly defined here.

Particular Conditions- Contn

Clause 4.8 Safety Procedures If there are any additional procedures to be implemented because of local laws they should be defined here Clause 4.19 Electricity, Water and Gas This articled defines where and how the Contractor will obtain the necessary infrastructure. Clause 4.21 Progress Reports If additional reports other than the ones defined in General Conditions are requested, these should be defined here. Clause 7 / Sub Clause 7.9 Rules of Origin. This sub clause should be added in few projects. Please remember this is only for permanent works.

Particular Conditions- Contn

Clause 8.2 Time for Completion

If there are different milestones for completion and/or taking over parts of the works these should be defined here. Clause 12.1 Works to be Measured
Only RED BOOK If measurements are to be done by records and/or reports, the details should be defined here.


Contents of a Works TD-1

A Works tender dossier comprises of 5 Volumes;

Volume 1: Instructions to Tenderers . Terminology should be adopted in line with FIDIC. Volume 2: Conditions of Contract FIDIC Volume 3: Technical Specifications / Employers Requirements Volume 4: Financial Offer Format, Schedule of Prices

Volume 5: Drawings

Contents of Works TD-2

Volume 1:

Instructions to Tenderers (ITT) Tender Form and Annexes (Appendix to Tender) Tender Guarantee Format Forms Glossary of Terms Evaluation Grid

Contents of Works TD-3

Volume 2:

Draft Contract

General Conditions of Contract (RED / YELLOW BOOK))

Based on the nature and design responsibility.

Particular Conditions of Contract

Security Samples (Pre-finance, Performance & Retention)

Contents of Works TD-4

Particular Conditions 1

FIDIC General Conditions of Contracts (RED or YELLOW) for any type of project anywhere in the world. Contract will be customized by using the particular conditions of contract.

Particular conditions prevail the General Conditions.

Particular Conditions changes / replaces / revises / deletes the Clauses of the General Conditions.

Contents of Works TD-5

Particular Conditions 2

Clauses in Particular Conditions should not be conflicting with the clauses of the General Conditions. FIDIC Guidelines may be used while drafting Particular Conditions. Particular Conditions should be in line with the local law and law of the contract. Any revisions / additions / omissions done by the Particular Conditions should be based on rational reasoning.

Contents of Works TD-6

Particular Conditions 3

Very complex PCs may harm the completeness and structure of a works Contract. PCs should be drafted by a team of experts who have relevant works and contract management experience.

PCs should be assessed / evaluated by local lawyers. Appendix to Tender may be used as control tool. Clause 1.5 of PCs; Priority of Documents is important and should be readdressed for every project.

Contents of Works TD-7

Priority of Documents

the contract, the Tender Form with its appendix,

the Particular Conditions,

the General Conditions, the Technical Specifications, the design documentation (drawings), the bill of quantities (after arithmetical corrections)/breakdown, any other documents forming part of the contract

Appendix to Tender 1

Appendix to Tender is prepared as a summary table. Includes Financial and Administrative / Contractual Information Administrative / Contractual Information

Contact Details of Parties Contract Duration Law and Language of the Contract Disputes and Arbitration
FIDIC Training 12-14 April 2011 116

Appendix to Tender 2

Financial Information:

Security Amounts Delay Penalties

Pre-Finance Payments
Retention Deductions Minimum Interim Payments Insurance Amounts
FIDIC Training 12-14 April 2011 117

Appendix to Tender 3

It includes summary of the information originating from the Particular and General Conditions of Contract. A different AtT should be prepared for each tender. May be used as a tool to check the completeness and consistency of the particular and general conditions. Numeric values or specific information should be indicated in Appendix to Tender to avoid confusion and mistakes between different values. Appendix to tender should be used to complement the Particular and General Conditions, not to amend or revise them.


Dispute Adjudication Board (DAB)

Dispute Resolution Scheme

History of DAB
The first DB was called a Dispute Review Board (DRB) and it made recommendations rather than decisions. Major developments regarding DRBs were as follows: 1975 First Domestic DRB in U.S. (Eisenhower Tunnel).


First international DRB (EL Cajon Dam, Honduras)

1995 World Bank makes DRBs mandatory for all IBRD-financed projects over US$50m.


Asian Development Bank and EBRD adopt DRB approach.


History of DAB
Subsequently, the Dispute Adjudication Board (DAB), which made decisions rather than recommendations, developed internationally, as follows: 1995 1998 1999 FIDIC introduces DAB in its Orange Book England introduces mandatory statutory adjudication; subsequently, parts of Australia, New Zealand and Singapore do the same FIDIC adopts DAB in all contracts for major works

2000 World Bank adopts DB recommendations as binding and requires to give effect to them unless and until revised by an arbitral award



Dispute Boards
Timing of appointment of DB members Ad hoc v. standing Appointed when dispute arises (ad hoc) Appointed at start of project, for the duration (standing)

Nature of output of DB Decision v. Recommendation Dispute Review Boards (DRB) Dispute Adjudication Boards (DAB)

Dispute Boards
Dispute Boards DRB provides recommendations Art 4.2 , ICC Rules for DB: Upon receipt of a Recommendation, the Parties may comply with it voluntarily but are not not required to do so.
DAB renders contractually enforceable decisions Introduction, ICC DB Rules (2004) Determinations of Dispute Boards are not enforceable at law as such, although they may become contractually binding on the Parties as described below. Hence, Dispute Board Members do not act as arbitrators

DAB method adopted by FIDIC

Red, Yellow, Silver and Green

Dispute Boards under FIDIC Conditions of Contract

Gold and Blue Standing v. Ad-hoc

Standing DAB

Red and Gold


Yellow, Silver, Green and Blue

Dispute Boards under FIDIC Conditions of Contract

Sub-Clause 20.2 Disputes shall be adjudicated by a DAB in accordance with Sub-Clause 20.4..
Sub-Clause 20.4 .......... Within 84 days ........the DAB shall give its decision , which shall be reasoned ................The decision shall be binding on both Parties, who shall promptly give effect to it unless and until it shall be revised in amicable settlement or an arbitral award.

Referral to a Dispute Adjudication Board

-Under the Red and Gold Books the DAB will already exist. Must be appointed by date stated in Appendix to Tender or Contract Data. Default is 28 days after Commencement Date (i.e. commencement of execution of the works)

Under Yellow and Silver Books DAB appointed within 28 days of notice of intention to refer a dispute. Particular Conditions replace Appendix to Tender in Silver Book In Gold Book, notice of dissatisfaction with determination of Employers Representative within 28 days of determination. If no notice, determination deemed accepted. Referral within further 28 days

Composition of DAB
One or three members as stated in Appendix to Tender (or equivalent in other forms) Default is three members Each party nominates one member for approval of other Parties consult these members and agree on third, who acts as chairman If Contract contains a list, member selected from that list, unless unwilling/unable to act 129

Agreement with DAB Member


incorporate General Conditions of Dispute Adjudication Agreement

These conditions contained in an Appendix to General Conditions However, may be amended by the Parties Remuneration must be agreed by both parties Each party pays half

Termination of Appointment of Member

By mutual agreement of Parties, but not by either acting alone Unless otherwise agreed, under Red Book all appointments terminate when Clause 14 discharge effective (discharge is submitted with Final Statement confirming total of Final Statements represents full and final settlement of all monies due to Contractor) Under Yellow and Silver books, appointments expire when DAB has given its decisions unless other disputes have meantime been referred. Under Gold Book, later of 28 days after decision or upon issue of Commissioning Certificate

Failure to Agree DAB

If Parties fail to agree sole member DAB within time period Either Party fails to nominate a member (for approval by the other Party) within time period The Parties fail to agree a Chairman within time period The Parties fail to agree a replacement within 42 days of refusal to act, death etc.

Appointment made by entity or person named in Appendix to Tender or equivalent in other forms in consultation with Parties who pay half of appointing fee each

General Conditions of Dispute Adjudication Agreement(1)

Tripartite Agreement each Party and Member

Effective when last member signs an agreement Personal appointment Warranty of impartiality and independence, except as disclosed Warranty of suitable construction experience, experience of

contractual interpretation and fluency in contract language

Confidentiality obligation

General Conditions of Dispute Adjudication Agreement(2)

Mutual obligations not to request or give advice on the Contract
except in normal course of DAB activity (unless agreed) Member cannot be appointed arbitrator Member cannot be called as witness Be liable for his actions as Member, unless bad faith. Indemnified.


Procedure of DAB
Annex contains Procedural Rules which are not detailed. DAB shall (a) act fairly and impartially as between the Employer and the Contractor, giving each of them a reasonable opportunity of putting his case and responding to the others case, and (b) adopt procedures suitable to the dispute, avoiding unnecessary delay or expense.

Procedure of DAB
DAB may conduct a hearing. May request written documents and

arguments prior to or at hearing.

DAB may adopt inquisitorial procedure

DAB may proceed in absence of party, provided notified

DAB may grant provisional relief

DAB may open up, review, revise, any certificate, determination, instruction etc.
of Engineer.

DAB must not express opinions on merits of argument during hearing

Decisions of the DAB

Convenes meetings after a hearing, to have discussions and prepare Decision

If not unanimous, majority may require minority Member to prepare a report for Employers and Contractor Two members may normally proceed in absence of third, unless a party does not agree, or absent chairman instructions other Members not to make decision.

Decision Time, etc

DAB makes decision within 84 days of Reference unless otherwise agreed. [Gold Book 84 days from Response or 105 from Reference if no Response] Decision is reasoned Decision is binding and must be given effect to But unless and until it shall be revised in an amicable settlement or an arbitral award. [This wording excluded from Gold Book] If no decision within 84 days (or other agreed period) either party may give notice of dissatisfaction within 28 days Decisions made outside 84 days will probably not bind the parties

Dissatisfaction with DRB Decision

Within 28 days of receiving decision, Party gives notice to other Party of its dissatisfaction. Gold Book requires copy to Chairman of DAB Notices of dissatisfaction must set out matter in dispute and reason for dissatisfaction (but not binding in arbitration) Valid notice of dissatisfaction normally condition precedent to arbitration Gold Book only: if decision of DAB requires a payment, DAB may require payee to provide an appropriate security. Decision becomes final and binding upon both parties if no notice of dissatisfaction given within 28 days


Amicable Settlement (Clause 20.5)

Where notice of dissatisfaction has been given, both parties attempt to settle the dispute amicably before commencement of arbitration. However, unless both Parties agree otherwise, arbitration may be commenced on or after the 56thday after the day on which notice of dissatisfaction was given, even if no attempt at amicable settlement has been made.


Replacement of Member
Parties may appoint a replacement member at any time Unless otherwise agreed, appointment effective if a member Declines to act Dies Is disabled from acting in some way Resigns Appointment is terminated Appointment of replacement chairman again requires 141 consultation with other members


Each party is responsible for paying one half of the remuneration of the DAB members. Both the Employer and the Contractor are jointly and severally liable to pay the DAB members their fees and expenses Historic data indicates that DAB cost is not more than 1% of the total contract value

DAB success stories in Europe- Channel Tunnel


Disputes to DAB
A dispute may be said to have arisen when : A final determination has been rejected

Discussions have been terminated without agreement

When a party declines to participate in discussions to reach agreement When so little progress is being achieved during protracted discussions that it has become clear that agreement is unlikely to be achieved

Dispute Adjudication Board (DAB)

Procedural Rules for DAB are set out in Annex to Dispute Adjudication Agreement DAB shall visit site at intervals of not more than 140 days but not less than 70 days at request of either Employer or Contractor DAB to use site visits to become and remain acquainted with progress of the Works and actual/potential problems or claims DAB to produce a report after each site visit DAB may conduct hearings and request exchange of statements DAB can adopt an inquisitorial procedure and refuse admission to hearings or grant audience to any persons other than parties representatives DAB can open up, review and revise any certificate, decision, determination, 144 instruction, opinion or valuation of the Engineer

Dispute Boards Distinguished from Arbitration

Referral to a Dispute Board is similar to arbitration, but can be distinguished from arbitration in two principal ways:

While an arbitrator is chosen to exercise a judicial function and to resolve a dispute based upon submissions by the parties, a Dispute Board is chosen for its expertise in a certain subject matter and often does its own investigation or appreciation of the issue, with or without submissions by the parties. While arbitral awards can be judicially enforced, a Dispute Board determination, unless re-qualified as an arbitration, is in some jurisdictions not enforceable in court. The enforceability issue is governed by local law, and is unresolved in 145 many jurisdictions.

DAB Lessons Learnt Summary

Choose correctly
Standing v. ad-hoc Composition of DB

Ensure understanding of process Ensure compliance with applicable legal system Jointly define procedures
Rules Establishing common culture

Arbitration Basis (Clause 20.6)

May be commenced prior to or after completion of the Works ICC Rules of Arbitration apply Three Arbitrators Language is that of language of contract communications (as stated in Appendix to Tender) Full power to open up, review, revise, any certificate, determination, instruction etc. of Engineer and decision of DAB Engineer may be witness Parties not limited to arguments and evidence before DAB DAB decision admissible in evidence

Failure to comply with DAB Decision (Clause 20.7)

Where a DAB decision has become final and binding and a Party fails to comply with the decision, then the other Party may refer the failure itself to arbitration. (No attempt at amicable settlement is necessary)

But a lacuna in Red, Yellow, Silver books as to enforcement where decision not final and binding can probably be enforced by arbitration. Specifically dealt with in Gold Book. In the event that a party fails to comply with any decision of the DAB, whether binding or final and binding, then the other party mayrefer the failure itself to arbitrationfor summary or other expedited relief 148

Direct referral to Arbitration

If a dispute arises between the Parties in connection with, or arising out of, the Contract or the execution of the Works and there is no DAB in place, whether by reason of the expiry of the DABs appointment or otherwise:

(a)Sub-clause 20.4 [obtaining Dispute Adjudication Boards Decision]

(b)The dispute may be referred directly to arbitration


Exercise-3 &4