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DRC Guidelines Lecture 1

Introduction to OOAD

OOAD Topics to be covered

OOAD Concept
OOA (Object Oriented Analysis) OOD (Object Oriented Design)

What is object? What is Object-Orientation? Characteristics of Objects What is OO Development? OO Theme

OOAD CONCEPTS OOAD Concept The subject is not primarily about OO-language or coding. This subject emphasize on initial stages of process development i.e. Requirement Gathering Planning etc. Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is a software engineering approach that models a system as a group of interacting objects.

Object OOAD Concept

What is an object?
1) any concept that represent a single thing 2) a representation of a specific entity in the real world 3) may be tangible (physical entity) or intangible Examples: In the case of LMS, software or system itself is intangible object and student and Library clerk act as tangible objects.

Object Definition : Discrete (i.e. unique) & distinguishable entities called objects. Ex. A person is an object. His name is Identify Ex. Ram
Note: Objects are uniquely identifiable by name. Each objects has its own inherent identity. In other words, two objects are distinct even if an their attribute values (i.e. name and size) are identical. Ex. Twins are two distinct person by identity

OOAD Definition:

Objects with the same data structure (attributes) & behavior ( operation) are grouped into a class.
In OO systems, class is a set of objects that share common structure and common behavior Classes are important mechanisms for classifying objects. Each class describes a possibly infinite set of individual objects.

OOAD Each objects is said to be instance of its class. Objects has its own value for each attributes but shares the attributes names & operations. Example : Class Name : Circle Attributes : radius, center Operation : setCenter(), setRadius()


Definition: Sharing of attributes & operations (features) among classes based on hierarchical relationship.
A superclass has general information that subclass refine and elaborate. Each subclass incorporates all the features of its superclass and adds its own features. In other words, defining new classes from the existing one.

Inheritance Note: subclasses need not repeat the features of the superclass. Advantage: common features of several classes into a superclass can reduce repetition within design and programs.


Same operation may behave differently for different classes. In simple words, One name multiple form Here operation mean its a procedure or transformation that an object perform or is subject to. For example , Class name is POLYGON
Attributes - vertices, border color, fill color. Operations Draw, erase, fill

An implementation of an operation by a specific class is called Method