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Guidelines for Energy Auditing of P C Fired Boilers

Surender Kumar
Deputy Director,NPTI

Boiler Schematic

Water & Steam cycle Fuel System Air & flue gas Flow Path Ash/ rejects Handling System

Performance Parameters

Boiler Aspects For Study


Coal quality - composition and calorific value Coal milling aspects Combustion and excess air e!eaters

"eat recovery units # Economisers$ air-pre!eaters etc% &nsulation aspects

Boiler Aspects For Study


'peration and maintenance features (!ic! affect t!e energy efficiency Boiler blo( do(n aspects Soot blo(ing aspects Condition ) status of boiler and t!eir internals Feed (ater system aspects Air and flue gas system aspect

Steps &nvolved &n Boiler Energy Audit Data collection !ser"ations and Analysis #$ploration for energy conser"ation measures %eport preparation

*ata Collection

*ata Collection-boiler Specifications


Particulars -a.e 0ype Capacity -ain Steam pressure -ain Steam temperature Boiler efficiency Super !eater outlet flo( e!eater outlet flo( Calorific value #GC= Coal consumption 0otal combustion air >0S" outlet temperature e!eater outlet temperature 1ater-economi?er inlet temperature 1ater-economi?er outlet temperature 'xygen content at Economi?er outlet tp! .g6cm3
9

+nit

*etails at ,ormal cont% rating$ ,C ////// 1ater 0ube Single *rum 234%53 788 8:9 <4%72 234%53 828%2 :589 792%3 <33 :39 8:9 3:7 3<9 :%35

; tp! tp! .cal6.g tp! tp!


9 9 9 9

C C C C

*ata Collection-boiler Specifications +nit *esign6,C


-a.e 0ype @ear of &nstallation -ain Steam Pressure -ain Steam 0emperature -ain Steam Flo( Steam pressure at >0S" outlet Steam temperature at re!eater inlet Steam temperature at re!eater outlet Steam pressure at re!eater inlet Steam pressure at re!eater outlet Steam temperature at >0S" out Saturated steam temperature in drum Super !eater platen outlet temperature -aximum pressure drop in re!eater Super !eater spray e!eater Spray Ambient temperature Coal consumption .g6cm3 oC tp! .g6cm3 oC oC .g6cm3 .g6cm3 oC oC oC Ag6cm3 tp! tp! oC tp!

Actual

*ata Collection- Economiser


+nit Feed (ater pressure at t!e inlet Feed (ater pressure at t!e outlet Feed (ater flo( Feed (ater temperature at t!e inlet Feed (ater temperature at t!e outlet 'xygen content in flue gas before6after economi?er Excess air ; in flue gas before6 after economi?er Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Flue gas quantity .g6cm3 .g6cm3 tp! oC oC ; ; oC oC tp! *esign Actual

*ata CollectionD Air Pre "eater


+nit Air quantity at AP" outlet BprimaryC 0empering air Air !eater outlet BsecondaryC 0otal combustion air Air temperature at fan outlet Air outlet temperature of AP" # primary Air outlet temperature of AP"# secondary 'xygen content in flue gas before AP" Excess air ; in flue gas before and after AP" Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Flue gas quantity tp! tp! tp! tp! oC oC oC ; ; oC oC tp! *esign Actual

*ata Collection-flue gas temperature profile


+nit Super !eater platen outlet " front inlet " rear inlet S" finis! inlet >0S" inlet Economi?er inlet AP" inlet AP" outlet &* Fan inlet &* Fan outlet oC oC oC oC oC oC oC oC oC oC *esign Actual

*ata Collection- coal parameters


+nit Fixed Carbon =olatile -atter -oisture As! Grindabiity index Coal calorific value-""= Si?e of t!e coal to mill 0otal contract fuel fired ; ; ; ; "G& Acal6.g mm tp! *esign Actual

*ata Collection-boiler !eat balance


+nit Ambient temperature Excess air *ry gas loss "ydrogen loss -oisture in fuel loss -oisture in air loss +nburnt combustible loss adiation loss +n accounted loss Gross boiler efficiency on ""= oC ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; *esign Actual

*ata Collection- mills and burners performance


+nit equirement at ,C Actual emar.s

,o of coal burners Primary Air Fuel ,o of mills in operation -ill loading Air temperature at mill inlet after tempering Air # fuel mixture temperature after leaving mills 0otal coal fired Air # Fuel atio

,o tp! ,o ; oC

oC

tp!

*ata Collection- coal mill specifications


0ype of mill Capacity Fineness EEEEEEEEEEEEEE -a.e EEEEEEEEE

EEEEEEEEEEtp! at coal EEEEEEEEgrind EEEEEEEEEEE; t!roug! EEEEEEEEmes! EEEEEEEEEEEE.1 EEEEEEEE = ,o of mills EEEEEEEEE6EEEEEEEE DEEEEEEEEEE

-otor rating -otor voltage unning 6Standby

*esign coal parameter -oisture As! =olatile matter Fixed carbon "G& EEEEE; EEEEE; EEEEE; EEEEE; EEEEE;

*ata CollectionD Soot Blo(ers


0ype Soot blo(ers for furnace Soot blo(ers super !eaters Soot blo(ers for re!eaters Soot blo(ers for air pre!eaters -edium of blo( Steam pressure before reduction Steam pressure after reduction Steam consumption ,umber

*ata CollectionD Case Example of 3796899 -1 +nit

*ata CollectionD Boiler Specifications


&ain Boiler &a)e -ype (apacity &ain Steam pressure &ain Steam temperature (%H Pressure H%H Pressure (%H -emperature H%H -emperature Boiler efficiency Super heater outlet flow %eheater outlet flow (alorific "alue =>(? (oal consumption '(% 'atural (irculation* !alanced draft* dou!le pass* single drum* single re+heat* direct pul"eri,ed coal/oil firing* dry !ottom type* tangential firing ...... .... /012 &W3 /422&W3 tph 522 1671 )g/cm0 2( )g/cm0 )g/cm0 2( 2( < tph tph )cal/)g tph 1489: 482 54%3 5<%4 555 8:9 759; 684 451 ;422 1;: 15590 482 8;92: 829:: ;8196 482 7791 1408905 1;50980 ;542 0::

*ata CollectionD Boiler Specification


0otal combustion air >0S" outlet temperature e!eater outlet temperature 1ater -economi?er inlet temperature 1ater-economi?er outlet temperature Pressure drop in re!eater Super !eater spray e!eater Spray Ambient temperature tp! 9C 9C 9C 9C Ag6cm3 tp! tp! oC 4F7 5F< 8:9 3:2 3F3 7%8 5%3 --34 7<85 8:9 385 57: 3%7 9 3<

*ata CollectionD Economiser


EC','-&SE Feed (ater pressure at t!e inlet Feed (ater pressure at t!e outlet Feed (ater flo( Feed (ater temperature at t!e inlet Feed (ater temperature at t!e outlet 'xygen content in flue gas before economi?er Excess air ; in flue gas before economi?er Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Flue gas quantityt AP" &6> ; ; ; ; oC oC tp! .g6cm3 .g6cm3 tp! oC oC 72F 724%5 28F%: 3:2 3F3 5%8: 39 :F5 587 7F5%7 7F7%95 783:%34 385 57: 5%8F 39 582 752 3953

*ata CollectionD Air Pre "eater


Air Pre "eater Air quantity at AP" outlet BprimaryC 0empering air Air !eater outlet BsecondaryC 0otal combustion air Air outlet temperature of AP" # primary Air outlet temperature of AP"# secondary 'xygen content in flue gas before AP" Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Flue gas quantity tp! tp! tp! tp! oC oC ; oC oC tp! 748 F7 :<5 4F7 539 53: 5%8: 587 752 384 3<5 7325 7<85 532 532 5%8F 582 752 3953

*ata Collection Flue Gas 0emperature profile


Flue Gas 0emperatures Super !eater platen outlet " front inlet " rear inlet
9

+nit
9

379 -1 899 -1 7728 799< <2: 48: 254 :F5 587 752 777F 795: F98 4<< 827 582 752

C C C C C

S" finis! inlet >0S" inlet

Economi?er inlet AP" inlet AP" outlet

C
9

C C

*ata CollectionD "eat Balance


"eat Balance Ambient temperature Excess air *ry gas loss "ydrogen loss -oisture in fuel loss -oisture in air loss +nburnt combustible loss adiation loss +n accounted loss 0otal >osses "eat Credits Guaranteed efficiency oC ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 9%73 7%3 9%77 7%77 75%7: 9%:: <4%3< 9%72 9%29 9%3F 9%:9 77%89 9%39 <<%79 210M 34 39 :%44 8%<5 500MW 3< 39 :%2: 8%8:

*ata CollectionD ecommended Boiler 1ater Parameters


ecommended F1 limits "ardness p" at 38oC 'xygen # maximum 0otal iron- maximum 0otal silica # maximum Conductivity at 38oC "ydra?ine residual 0otal solids # maximum c!lorides Copper # maximum Permanganate consumption +nit ppm ppm ppm -icor s6cm ppm ppb ppm ppm ppm Feed (ater ,il <%<F%3 9%994 9%97 9%93 9%5 9%979%93 9%998 ,il Boiler 1ater F%7-F%2 59 78

*ata CollectionD Fuel Parameters


Fuel Parameters # +ltimate Analysis Carbon "ydrogen Sulpuer ,itrogen 'xygen 0otal moisture As! Gross calorific value Fuel Parameters # Proximate Analysis Fixed Carbon =olatile matter 0otal moisture As! +nit ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Acal6.g ; ; ; ;

779 -1
54%95 3%32 9%55 9%<8 2%85 73%9 :7%9 5899 3:%9 35%9 73%9 :7%9

500MW 5489 3< 3: < :9

-easurements and 'bservations


Average GC= of coal Coal analysis # ultimate and proximate Coal consumption details Performance parameters of coal mills Boiler efficiency Steam parameters of main steam$ re!eat$ super !eater$ >0S" Bflo($ pressure and temperatureC Air # flo($ temperature$ pressures Flue gas # Flo($ temperature and pressure Flue gas analysis Coal consumption pattern

-easurements and 'bservations

Ambient temperature Boiler loading -otor electrical parameters B.1$ .=A$ Pf$ A$ =$ "?$ 0"*C etc% Surface temperatures of insulation and boiler surfaces 't!er important Parameters +nit load of t!e plant *ate ) time of measurement &nstruments used for measurement Frequency of t!e measurement

-easurements and 'bservations


Availability factor P>F Coal consumption Btons and .g6.1!C 'il consumption in ml6.1! Boiler efficiency Past performance trends on boiler loading$ operation$ P>F$ efficiency -aGor constraints in ac!ieving t!e !ig! P>F$ load or efficiency B&nput from plant personnelC -aGor renovation and modifications carried out in t!e recent past Coal # quality and calorific values aspects 'perational failures leading to in efficient operation suc! as tube failures$ constraints for efficient !eaters operation

-easurements ) 'bservations
Soot blo(ers operation 0ripping Performance of economiser$ air pre!eaters$ >P 6 "P !eater from past records Combustion control system # practice follo(ed -ills performance &f plant !as online and off line tools for performance evaluation of main equipment and B'P equipment # t!en details of t!ese tools Plant side initiatives to improve t!e performance and efficiency of t!e boiler

&nstruments

equired For Boiler Auditing

&nstruments equired
Po(er AnalyserD +sed for measuring electrical parameters suc! as .1$ .=A$ pf$=$ A and "? 0emperature &ndicator ) Probe StroboscopeD 0o measure t!e speed of t!e driven equipment and motor Sling !ygrometer or digital !ygrometer Anemometer Available 'n line instruments at t!e site

&nstruments equired
Digital &anometer of suita!le range and appropriate pro!es for measurement of pressure head and "elocity head Additional pressure gauges with appropriate range of measurement and cali!rated !efore audit Flue gas analy,ers / orsat apparatus @nfrared pyrometers Pressure gauges Steam trap tester / Altra sonic lea) detectors

Pre audit C!ec.s


-rials are conducted at least for two hours and measurements are to !e ta)en e"ery fifteen minutes

Ensure during AuditingD >oad on t!e boiler to be by and large constant and represent average loading and normal operation ,o soot blo(ers operated ,o intermittent blo( do(n Preparedness for simultaneous data measurements and collection of various parameters% *emo exercise for one set of measurement and observation

-easurement >ocations
Flue gas analysis at air pre!eaters inlet 6 out let 0emperature of flue gas at air pre!eaters inlet 6 out let Fly as! sampling at t!e economiser outlet and ESP !oppers for unburnt carbon in fly as! Sample of bottom as! from !opper or scrapper Sample of ra( coal from C Feeder of t!e mill for proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel and gross calorific value% Pulverised coal samples from eac! mill for sieve analysis% Sample of mill reGects for GC=%

*ata Analysis

'bservations ) Analysis
'perating efficiency of t!e boilerD "eat loss due to dry flue gas losses "eat loss due to moisture in fuel "eat loss due to !ydrogen Bmoisture of burning !ydrogenC "eat loss due to combustibles in refuse "eat loss due to radiation +n accounted losses as per t!e contract (it! t!e Boiler Supplier

*ata S!eet Boiler Efficiency Evaluation

*ata S!eet Boiler Efficiency Evaluation

*ata S!eet Boiler Efficiency Evaluation

Computation of Boiler >osses


7% *ry flue gas lossD -heoretical Air %eBuirement

Actual Air Requirement

Dry Flue >as Cuantity /Wd3* Dg/Dg of fuel

*ry flue Gas >oss >dfg ;

Computation of Boiler >osses


Loss due to unburnt carbon in ash, Luca =

3% >oss due to unburnt carbon in as!D

Calorific value of carbon in kcal / kg [ (C % FA FAsh) + (C % BA BAsh)] GCV of fuel , GCV

5% >oss due to moisture in fuelD


Loss due to moisture in fuel , Lmf = M [ (0.45 ( FGT ABT ) + 584] 100 GCV

:% >oss due to !ydrogen in fuelD


Loss due to hydrogen in fuel , Lhf =

9 H2

[ (0.45 ( FGT ABT ) + 584]

100 GCV

Where H0 = )g of H0 in 1 )g of fuel

Computation of Boiler >osses 8% >oss due to moisture in airD


Loss due to in moisture in air , Lma = AAS humidity 0.45 ( FGT ABT ) 100 GCV

Where AASEActual mass of air supplied Humidity E humidity of air in )g/)g of dry air

2% >oss due to C' in flue gasD


Foss due to car!on mono$ide * Fco =( in ppm 12 6 fuel consumptio n in )g / h 07 4588 122 >(?

Foss due to car!onmono $ide * Fco

( < ( 4588 122 = ( <+ ( 0< >(?

Efficiency evaluation of Boiler


Particulars Date & time of the test Foad Fuel >(? Foss due to hydrogen in fuel Foss due to Dry Flue gases* Fdfg Foss due to moisture in Air Foss due to un!urnt car!on in ash* Fuca Foss due to moisture in fuel* Fmf Foss due to car!on mono$ide* Fco %adiation mono$ide losses Anaccounted losses & manufacturers margin -otal losses Boiler #fficiency &W )cal/)g < < < < < < < < < < Anit Design ?alue Actual "alue < De"iation %emar)

Boiler"eat Balance

8%8; :%3;

Heat loss due to dry flue gas


DryFlueGasLoss

Heat loss due to wet flue gas Heat loss due to moisture in fuel Heat loss due to moisture in air Heat loss due to un!urnts in residue Heat loss due to radiation & other unaccounted loss

Heat 799; from Fuel

7;

B'&>E

9%5; 7; 7;

<4;

Boiler #fficiency /Heat in Steam3

Energy Audit- Coal -illing System

Energy Audit- Coal -illing System


!jecti"es of energy audit G
-o e"aluate specific energy consumption /)Wh/ton of

coal3
-o esta!lish air to coal ratio of the mills /ton of air per

ton of coal3
-o e"aluate specific coal consumption of the unit

/)g /)Wh3
(ompare the actual consumption with design/pg test

"alues
Suggest ways to optimise energy consumption

Energy Audit- Coal -illing System

"er"iew of system includes mills* %( feeders* PA fans* seal air fans*mill reject handling system and associated ducts* piping* "al"es and dampers* lu!rication system* thermal insulation status of mills/pa fans ducts/piping etc9

Samples of raw coal* pul"erised coal* mill

rejects*mill gear!o$ oil* fly ash and !ottom ash

Energy Audit- Coal -illing System

a( CoalG

>(?* ash content* "olatile matter* fi$ed car!on* total moisture*and H>@ "alue of coal9 &ill fineness /< passing through 022 mesh3* %unning hours of mill grinding elements with material composition of each part* @ndi"idual %(F coal integrator readings !e compared with o"erall coal integrator readings9

Pulverised CoalG

-ill

eGect CoalG
Ash content and gross calorific "alue of mill rejects* FlyAsh* Bottom Ash and (om!usti!les in fly ash and !ottom ash & >(?9 ?iscosity* moisture* mechanical impurities and appearance of lu!ricating oil of mill gear!o$es9

-ill Gear Box 'ilG

Energy Audit- Coal -illing System


'bservations

Energy Audit- Coal -illing System


Coal fineness

-ill reGects

C'-B+S0&', C',0 '>$ E/CESS A& A,* C'>* A& &,G ESS
1!ile conducting t!e study$ t!e follo(ing need to be verifiedD Present e$cess air and comparison with P> test or design "alue (om!ustion control systems installed and status of operation* cali!ration systems &onitoring and controlling mechanism for o$ygen* e$cess air and reporting systems in place #ffect of e$cess air on !oiler performance #$cess air with respect to !oiler load "ariation (old air infiltration in to the system = o!ser"e the present method of measurement* estimation* freBuency of measurement for estimating the losses and control mechanisms initiated9

PE F' -A,CE 'F A& P E"EA0E S


Air lea)age estimation in APHG
-he following gi"es the air lea)age in to the /APH3 system if the $ygen < is measured at the entry and e$it of the APH

Alternati"ely* if the ( 0< is measured in the e$haust gases then the air lea)age is estimated !y

PE F' -A,CE 'F A& P E"EA0E S


>as side efficiencyG -he gas side efficiency is defined as the ratio of the temperature drop* corrected for lea)age* to the temperature head and e$pressed as percentage9 -emperature drop is o!tained !y su!tracting the corrected gas outlet temperature from the inlet9 -emperature head is o!tained !y su!tracting air inlet temperature from gas inlet temperature9

PE F' -A,CE 'F A& P E"EA0E S


-heoretical

-otal air E PAH SAH Seal air

tph

E/P>' A0&', 'F E,E G@ C',SE =A0&', 'PP' 0+,&0&ES


BoilersD
Steam and water parameters / flow* pressure and temperature 3 Air and gas parameters / flow* pressure and temperature 3 Burners operation Primary and secondary air ratios and temperatures Air infiltration in to !oilers An!urnt loss reduction (om!ustion control = !oiler e$cess air* or un!alance Dry flue gas loss @nsulation Air infiltration to flue gases Water Buality* Blow down and its control 0 &easurement inaccuracy

E/P>' A0&', 'F E,E G@ C',SE =A0&', 'PP' 0+,&0&ES


Stack Temperature

Boiler Soot Deposits* High #$cess Air * Air inlea)ages !efore the com!ustion cham!er* Fow Feed Water -emperature * Passing dampers and poor air heater seals * Higher ele"ation !urners in ser"ice* @mproper com!ustionI

Incomplete Combustion

Poor milling i9e9 (ourse grinding* Poor air/fuel distri!ution to !urners* Fow com!ustion air temperature* Fow primary air temperature* Primary air "elocity !eing "ery high/"ery low* Fac) of adeBuate fuel/air mi$ingI99

E/P>' A0&', 'F E,E G@ C',SE =A0&', 'PP' 0+,&0&ES


*ry flue gas loss%

Air in+lea)age through man holes* peep holes* !ottom seals* air heater seal lea)age* une"en distri!ution of secondary air* inaccurate samples/analysis9 0 controlI9

Poor automatic boiler SAD(* !urner tilting*

adiation and convection !eat loss% (asing radiation* sensi!le heat in refuse* !ottom water seal operation* not much controlla!le !ut !etter maintenance of casing insulation can minimi,e the loss9

E/P>' A0&', 'F E,E G@ C',SE =A0&', 'PP' 0+,&0&ES

Blo(do(n%

1 < of !low down carries a 2915< heat added* in the !oiler* 2904< heat is reBuired to ma)e up accounts to 2980< so !low down to !e adhered to the chemist reBuirement9

Scaling and soot losses%


Super heated steam with high enthalpy is used9 1< of steam may !e reBuired* contains 2960< heat content* to ma)e up the loss another 2904< heat to !e added to feed water resulting total heat loss of 2975<9 FreBuency of soot !lowing must !e carefully planned9

Auxiliary po(er consumption%

Saving Analysis (it! improvement in efficiency


Fuel Sa"ing

S< E /new+ asis3J122/ new


Annual energy sa"ings Annual cost sa"ings

as is = the actual system efficiency CMWh = uel costs in Rs!MWh "here MWh# refers to ener$y in the fuel P% = plant loa& factor as a fraction

Case StudyD 7% 3% 'ptimi?ation of Excess Air 'ptimi?ation of PA to SA

'ptimi?ation of Excess Air

Parameter Excess air at boiler exit ; Excess air at AP" exit FG temp% at AP" exit 9c *ry Flue gas loss ; "eat loss due to C' ; ;

*esign 7F%9 3<%9 7:2%9 8%9< 9 9%73 8%F8 9%F9 9%82 9%74 9%8 73%84 <4%:5

measured 35%2 88%2 724%2 <%<F 9 9%7< 8%4< 9%9F 9%8F 9%79

'bservation Excess Air and cold air &ngress also causes &* fan loading Excess FG temp% at AP" Causes ) Actions 1orn out seals and !eat 0ransfer elements-Attended >ea.age t!roug! peep6port !oles-Attended Soot formation on t!e !eat transfer area- S B done esults 3%<5; effciciency impr% in eduction Coal consumption By 4::F9 06A s%25%9F saving B s% <:4 60C

"eat loss due to moisture in air ; "eat loss due to moisture and "3 in fuel ; "eat loss due to unburnt in as! Sensible !eat loss in as! ; Surface and unaccounted losses ; *esign margin ; 0otal !eat losses ;BcorrectedC 0!ermal efficiency ; ;

7:%F5 <8%94

#fficiency #"aluation of 422 &W unit

'ptimi?ation of PA to SA
0ype +nit PAF A PAF B F* A F* B

(apacity

&;/ 44 sec -otal design mm 1010 head wc Fan Speed rpm 1872 Fan @nlet regulation damper type control Fan motor )w :22 rating perating parameters Air Flow &;/ 64905 sec Power )w :02 consumptio n System < 5796 #fficiency %atio of PA 4695 /823

44 1010 1872 @nlet damper control :22 469;8 :25 6592

4798 842 1872 Blade pitch control 822 0897 57 6694 8;9; /62K

4798 842 1872 Blade pitch control 822 6792 174 5594

!ser"ation /102&W unit3 Higher PA to SA ratio %esult Adjustment of ratio* power consumption reduced from 02:2 )w to 1562 )w Sa"ing of %s9 ;900 &/A* cosidering 5422 hrs/year and %s9 19;2 per )wh