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What is Electrical wiring

Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated with devices. This chapter describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in house, building and structures, commonly referred to as house wiring &building wiring. This chapter is intended to describe common features of electrical wiring that may apply worldwide for house wiring, staircase wiring, godown wiring & 3 phase motor wiring.

Hands Tools Required For Wiring

Every electrician & wireman needs basic hand tools to perform everyday tasks most common tools used by an electrician and wireman for wiring are as follows:

WIRE STRIPPERS ELECTRICAL TAPE SAW PLIERS SCREW DRIVERS ELECTRICAL DRILLS

HAMMER MEASURING TAPE ELECTRICIAN KNIFE POKER GIMLET NEON TESTER

Hands Tools - Wire Strippers

These tools easily and properly strip the insulation from the ends of the wires. They also have wire cutters and crimpers for cutting & attaching crimp terminals. They are equipped with different sized cutting teeth for various sized wires.

Hands Tools - Electrical Tape

This tape has excellent insulating properties and can be used to wrap wires when there is a chance that a wire could come loose. It can also be used around switches and receptacles to insulate screws from touching the electrical wires in the box.

Hands Tools - Saw

Hand saws are a much needed tool when working with wood or metal. It is used for cutting wooden boards, conduit GI pipes or mild steel etc. It should be protect from rust & apply grease, when not in use

Hands Tools - Pliers

A set of pliers is a must for electrical work. You need pliers to help with things like holding, twisting, cutting wire, forming loops on the end of wires and turning very small parts. Lineman pliers and needle-nose pliers are especially effective tools to use when dealing with electrical wiring. Do not cut steel wires & do not use in place of hammer. Protect it from rust.

Hands Tools - Screwdrivers

Screwdrivers of various sizes are needed for electrical work. You will need a screwdriver to loosening or tightening or to keep screw in position.

Avoid greasy or oily handle & do not use it in place of firmer chisel.
Use proper size for particular screw.

Hands Tools - Electric Drills

Electric Drills are easily searchable in the market. Electric Drills are generally used for making holes in wall, wood etc with suitable drill bit.

The new Electric Drills now come with variable speed and good strong control.

Hands Tools - HAMMER

A hammer is used to secure boxes equipped with nail-on brackets to studs in a home, fixing batten clip with nail. Youll also need it to drive straps when adding new wiring in a home.

Never use loose handle & greasy handle hammer.

Hands Tools - MEASURING TAPE

Measuring tape is use to measure heights for switches and outlets & dimension of wiring. It is made of steel.

Do not twist the open tape & avoid it from rust.

Hands Tools - ELECTRICIAN KNIFE

This knife is needed to cut the insulation off of wires. Protect it from rust & do not use it for cutting wire.

Hands Tools - POKER

Used for making pilot holes for fixing wood screw. Do not use it on the metal.

Hands Tools - GIMLET

Used for making holes in wooden things (blocks & boards). It should not be used on metal.

Hands Tools - NEON TESTER

It is used for checking the live supply (phase).It consist of neon bulb with series resistor. Dont use as a screw driver or drop it down.

ELECTRICAL WIRING & CLASSIFICATION OF ACCESSORIES


Electrical accessories Classification of Accessories

An electrical accessories is a basic part used in wiring for protection, adjustment and for the control of electrical circuits. As per B.I.S. the standard current and voltage rating of the accessories are 6A 240V, 16A 240V and 32A 240VAC.

Controlling accessories

Holding accessories
Safety accessories

Outlet accessories
General accessories

Controlling accessories

It is used for controlling the electrical circuits. Means to make and break the circuit. For e.g.: one way switch, two way switch, bell-push switch, double pole switch, double pole iron clad (D.P.I.C.) switch, triple pole iron clad (T.P.I.C.) switch etc.

Holding accessories

It is used for holding a lamp. It contain spring contact terminal. It is made of Bakelite or brass. Such as bayonet cap lamp holder, screw type holder etc for e.g.: pendent holder, batten holder, angle holder, bracket holder etc

Safety accessories

It is connected in series with the circuit & It protects the electrical apparatus & equipment from damage, when excess current flows.

For e.g.: fuses such as kitkat fuse, iron clad fuse etc

Outlet accessories:

These accessories are used to take the supply for the portable appliances like table fans, TV, mixer etc. Example of outlet accessories are two pin plug, two pin socket, three pin plug, three pin socket etc

General accessories

These accessories are used for general and special purposes such as: Adapter, connector, ceiling rose, neutral link etc

TYPES OF WIRING
Various system of residential wiring is as follows:

Batten wiring Conduit wiring Casing caping wiring Lead sheathed wiring

Batten Wiring
Batten wiring:

The wire used in this type of wiring is P.V.C wires and they are carried on wooden batten with clips. This wiring is suitable for damp climate, but cannot withstand much heat and so it is not suitable for places of very hot weather and there is also danger of mechanical damage and fire hazard. This wiring should not be exposed directly to sun or heat. Batten should be prepared from well seasoned teak wood and it should be straight. Fix batten with flat head screw and distance between screws should not be more than 75cm. Distance between clips should not exceed horizontally 10cm and vertically15cm. Do not give right angle bends to wires it should be radials.

Instruction for batten wiring as per B.I.S.


Conduit wiring
Conduit wiring: In this, types of wiring wires are carried through steel or iron pipes, which give good protection from mechanical injury or fire risks. This type of wiring is best for workshop and industry. In this type of wiring, the pipes are cut with hacksaw and are threaded with die set for bend, Tee junction box etc. and are then fixed on the walls with saddles. Then wires are drawn with help of fish wire (steel wire). Instruction for conduit wiring as per B.I.S. Distance between saddle to saddle should not exceed one metre. On either side of the couple or bends or tees saddle should be fixed at a distance not exceeding 30 cm. The threading on conduit pipe should not be less than 12mm & not more than 25mm. Be sure that it should be fully earthed.

Casing caping wiring


Casing caping wiring:

This is most common type of wiring used for indoor and domestic installations. Now a days casing & caping is made of a P.V.C. This type of wiring should not be used where there is a possibility of mechanical damage or fire hazard. Distance from screw to screw should not exceed 60 cm to 90cm for fixing a casing. Wiring should be done about metre down from the ceiling and at the height of 1.5 metre or above.

Lead sheathed wiring:


Lead sheathed wiring:

In this type of wiring the wire are either two core or three core, each being separately insulated and covered with common lead sheath. The lead sheathed wire are easily fixed by means of metal clips (saddles) .this type of wiring is costly. Instruction for lead sheathed wiring is same as to batten wiring

GENERAL INSTRUCTION RELATED TO WIRING AS PER B.I.S


GENERAL INSTRUCTION RELATED TO WIRING AS PER B.I.S

A.C. and D.C. circuit should be separated. 3 phase should be indicated by red, yellow and blue. Neutral should be indicated by black. Total load on circuit should not exceed more than 800 watt and number of point should not exceed ten. Power devices should have different circuits called power circuit and total load should not exceed more than 3000 watt and number of point should not exceed two. For lighting load the fuse range should not exceed 5 Amp and for power load the fuse range should not exceed 10 Amp. All plug and socket outlet should be 3-pin type. For lighting load 3pin 6A and for power load 3 pin 16A. All iron clad appliances, switches etc should be earthed. All switches should be connected through live wire.

All the boards should be fixed at a height of 1.3 metres.

B.I.S SYMBOL USED FOR WIRING

Sr.No

Description

Symbols used in the circuit diagram

Symbols used in layout

Sr.N o Description

Symbols used Symbols used in the circuit in layout diagram

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Phase Neutral Earth Lamp One way switch Two way switch I.C.D.P switch I.C.T.P switch Tube light Regulator

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Exhaust fan Ceiling fan Socket outlet,6A Socket outlet,16A Bell push Bell Buzzer Neutral link A.C motor D.O.L starter Fuse

Diagrams

Layout Diagram

Wiring Diagram

Layout Diagram

Wiring Diagram

Practical No.1

Aim: To control one lamp from two different places in batten wiring. (Stair case wiring)

Requirements:Sr No Tools/Instrument Qty Sr No Material Qty

Procedure

Practical No.2

Aim: To control one lamp from two different places in batten wiring. (Stair case wiring)

Requirements:Sr No Tools/Instrument Qty Sr No Material Qty

Procedure

Practical No.3

Aim: House wiring on teak wood batten

Requirements:Sr No Tools/Instrument Qty Sr No Material Qty

Procedure

Practical No.4

Aim 3 phase motor wiring with D.O.L starter on teak wood batten

Requirements:Sr No Tools/Instrument Qty Sr No Material Qty

Procedure

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