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# Gases Chapter 5

## Kinetic Molecular Theory

The KMT explains what happens to gases on a molecular level and assumes that
1. \$. '. *.

Gas particles are point masses (have negligible volume since the distance between molecules is !"# greater. The particles are in rapid% random% constant straight line motion. "ll collisions are perfectl& elastic (no energ& is lost . There are () attractive or repulsive forces between particles. The average +inetic energ& is directl& proportional to temperature according to the e,uation K-avg./mu\$ molar mass where u\$ .average mean s,uare speed .'#T0M

## Physical Characteristics of Gases

Gases

have high +inetic energ& and1 a. have no definite volume or shape (compressible . b. assume the shape and volume of their containers. c. there is much space between molecules (ver& low densit& .

What is pressure?
Pressure

is a force per unit area. !or gases% pressure comes from the pounding of molecules against each other and the walls of the container. 2hat will affect pressure3 4ncreasing temperature and concentration will increase pressure% and decreasing volume (s,uee5ing will increase pressure. 6-M)1 2hat causes pressure in the atmosphere3 2h& doesn7t water in a test tube fall out when inverted3

ow is pressure measured?
"tmospheric

## pressure is measured with a

barometer. 2h& is mercur& used3 8impl& because it has a high densit& (1'.9 g0m: % so the barometer can be small.
Which gas has the highest pressure? How would the tubes look if the gases inside were at

"

## manometer is used to measure pressure of gases other than at atmospheric pressure.

CASE gas CASE & gas CASE (1 gas pressure pressure is greater pressure is e!uals less atm pressure "#gas than atm pressure than atm pressure # %atm ' "# \$ # # %% atm "#\$ gas \$ # gas atm ) #hh

## Temperature and Pressure of Gases

The

average +inetic energ& of all the molecules is proportional to the temperature. Pressure is the force of the collisions between the gas particles and the sides of the container.
The

volume of a gas(! % the number of gas particles in that volume(n % the pressure of the gas(P % and the temperature of the gas( T are variables that depend on one another.

## Standard Temperature and Pressure of Gases

8tandard 8tandard

atmospheric pressure .

## "#"\$%&5 'Pa ( " atm ( )*# torr ( )*# mm g

temperature . #+C ( &)% K 2e indicate that a gas has been measured at standard conditions b& the capital letters STP (standard temp. and atm. pressure
E*periments show that at S+#, 1 mole of an

## Pressure ,nits and Con-ersions

There

are four different units of pressure used in chemistr&. ;ere the& are1 1 atmospheres (atm \$ millimeters of mercur& (mm;g ' Torr * +iloPascals (+Pa
1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 760.0 mmHg = 760.0 torr

Sample Problems.
-x1 <onvert \$='.* +Pa to mm;g. &0(-. k#a * " 123-3 mmHg % \$ 1431mmHg "131-( k#a%
-x1 <onvert >.?@= atm to mm;g.

## Con-erting /etween ,nits of Temperature

A

-B-#C T-MP-#"TD#- D8-6 4( " G"8 :"2 <":<D:"T4)( MD8T E- 4( K-:B4(8% ()T 6-G#--8 <-:84D8F

K ( +C 0 &)%
-x1 <onvert \$=G< to K K . \$=G< H \$@' K K . \$I? K

/oyle1s 2aw
#obert

Eo&le% a Eritish chemist% examined the relationship between volume and pressure of gases.

/oyle1s 2aw
If

the amount (n) and the temperature (T) of a gas remain constant, the pressure exerted by the gas varies inversely as the volume.

/oyle1s 2aw

/oyle1s 2aw
Dsing

Eo&le7s :aw% we can derive the following e,uation to calculate the volume of gases at different pressures. "ccording to Eo&le7s law% P x B . constant% so..

## 3pplying /oyle1s 2aw

-x1 " gas is collected and found to fill \$.?= : at \$*= +Pa. 2hat will be its volume at standard pressure3 4solate B\$1
P1B1 . P\$B\$ P1B1 . P\$B\$ P\$ P\$

P1B1 . B\$ P

Continued4
(ow

plug in &our numeric values1 \$*= +Pa x \$.?=: . 1>1.' +Pa 9.?I :

8olve1

## More /oyle1s Problems 5constant T6

" =.>> : canister of )\$ gas has a pressure of 111> mm;g. 2hat volume would this gas occup& at 1*'= mm;g3 "(81 '.?@ : \$ 4f a '.=> : bottle of (\$ has a pressure of *=> +Pa% what would be the new pressure if the volume were reduced to \$.\$= :3 "(81 @>>. +Pa ' 1>.> : of ;elium gas has a pressure of 1=>>.> torr% what is the pressure of @.=>:3 "(81 \$.>> x1>' torr
1

Charles1s 2aw
Jac,ues

<harles% a !rench ph&sicist% noted the relationship between the volume of a gas and temperature. ;is wor+ led to the Kelvin scale.

Charles1s 2aw
The

volume of a quantity of a gas, held at a constant pressure, varies directly with the elvin temperature.

Charles1s 2aw

<harles

## saw a linear relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.

E*trapolating

backwards, he found that the point where a gas would have no volume would be )&1( degrees Celsius- Since that6s as cold as he thought things could ever get, that originated the idea of absolute 7ero-

,sing

## 3pplying Charles1s 2aw

-x1 " gas is collected and found to fill \$.?= : at \$=.>G<. 2hat will be its volume at standard temperature3
4solate

## un+nown variable1 B1T\$ . B\$ T1

&\$;5 2 < &)% K ( &\$*" 2 &=; K

## More Charles1s Problems 5constant P6

1 *.*> : of a gas is collected at =>.>G<. 2hat will be its volume upon cooling to \$=.>G<3 "(81 *.>9 : \$ =.>> : of a gas is collected at 1>> K and then allowed to expand to \$>.> :. 2hat must the new temperature be in order to maintain the same pressure3 "(81 *>>. K ' <alculate the decrease in temperature when \$.>> : at \$>.> G< is compressed to 1.>> :. "(81 1*@ K

2e

## can combine Eo&le7s and <harles7s :aws to derive1 P"!":T" ( P&!&:T&

2e

use the combined gas law e,uation when pressure% volume% and temperature are all changing.

## Combined Gas 2aw Problems

3 gas has a -olume of ;##\$# m2 at minus &%\$## +C and %##\$# torr\$ What would the -olume of the gas be at &&)\$# +C and *##\$# torr of pressure? 3>S. ;##\$ m2 &6 5##\$# liters of a gas are prepared at )##\$# mm g and &##\$# +C\$ The gas is placed into a tan' under high pressure\$ When the tan' cools to &#\$# +C8 the pressure of the gas is %#\$# atm\$ What is the -olume of the gas? 3>S. =\$5" 2 %6 The pressure of a gas is reduced from "&##\$# mm g to ;5#\$# mm g as the -olume of its container is increased by mo-ing a piston from ;5\$# m2 to %5#\$# m2\$ What would the final temperature be if the original temperature was =#\$# +C? 3>S. "#*# K
"6

The

volume of a gas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas.

Dsing

## "vogadro7s :aw% we can derive the following e,uation1

!":n" ( !&:n&

So, what is the volume for an8 gas at S+#? &&-. /9mol:

-x1 " balloon is filled with \$.> moles of ;elium gas% occup&ing **.? : at constant temp. ;ow man& liters will be occupied if the number of moles is reduced to 1.=3
4solate

## The ?deal Gas @9uation

2hen

we combine Eo&le7s% <harles7s% and "vogadro7s :aws% we can derive the ideal gas e,uation1

P! ( nAT
P . pressure (atm B . volume (: n . moles T . temperature (K #. gas constant (>.>?\$1 :Katm0molKK

## More ?deal Gas Problems

" sample of <a<)' is decomposed% and the carbon dioxide is collected in a >.\$=> : flas+. "fter the decomposition is complete% the gas has a pressure of 1.' atm at a temp of '1G<. ;ow man& moles of <)\$ were generated3 "(81 >.>1'> mol \$ " flashbulb contains \$.* x1>K* moles of )\$ gas at a pressure of \$.>1 +Pa and a temperature of 1IG<. 2hat is the volume3 "(81 >.\$I\$ :
1

## Calculating Bensity and Molar Mass

2e

can use the ideal gas e,uation to calculate gas densit&. 6ensit& has the units g0: so we rearrange the e,uation to1 n . LPL B #T (ow the units on the left are moles0: so we can multipl& each side m& molar mass (units g0mole ..

## AT #earranged% M 5molar mass6 ( dAT P

Calculate the densities of >& and e at STP4using the gas density e9uation.

## Bensity and Molar Mass Problems

2hat

is the densit& of carbon tetrachloride vapor at @1* torr and 1\$=G<3 "(81 *.*\$ g0: 2hat is the densit& of sodium h&droxide vapor at *=>.> mm;g and @=G<3 "(81 >.?\$I g0: 2hat is the molar mass of a substance that has a densit& of \$.== g0: at a pressure of @?= torr and temperature of *=G<3 "(81 9*.9 g0mol

## Balton1s 2aw of Partial Pressures

)ur

calculations so far have been for pure gases. John 6alton formed a h&pothesis about pressure exerted b& a mixture of gases. 6alton7s :aw of Partial Pressure1 The total pressure in a container is the sum of the partial pressures of all the gases in the container.

'

'

V and T are
constant

P1

P&

## Ptotal = P1 ' P&

Consider a case in which two gases, A and =, are in a container of volume >PA \$ P= \$ nA?+ V nB?+ V XA \$ nA nA ' n= X= \$ n= nA ' n=
n= is the number of moles of =

## nA is the number of moles of A

P+ \$ PA ' P=

PA \$ xA P+ Pi \$ x i P+

P= \$ x = P+

Gas Mi<tures
Gases

in a single container are all at the same temperature and have the same volume% therefore% the difference in their partial pressures is due onl& to the difference in the numbers of molecules present.

## Partial Pressure of 3ir

"ir

is an example of a mixture of gases. Knitrogen is @?.>?* M Kox&gen is \$>.I*? M Kargon is >.I'* M Kcarbon dioxide is >.>'1= Kneon% helium% +r&pton% and xenon are among the other trace gases.

Gases in air

## What is the partial pressure of o<ygen in the air?

The

total pressure of the atmosphere at 8TP is @9> torr. 4f @?M of air is nitrogen% then @?M of pressure is due to nitrogen molecules. >.@? x @9> torr . =I' torr \$1M of air is ox&gen so \$1M of pressure is due to ox&gen molecules. >.\$1 x @9> torr . 19> torr

## Collecting Gases by Water Bisplacement

)ne

method to collect gases is b& water displacement. Gases must be insoluble in water. 2hen collection is complete% water vapor is present in the collection container and must be accounted for in the partial pressures of gases.

&@ClA( "s%

Bolume

of a dr& gas1

## Pgas ( Ptotal C Pwater

-x1 " ,uantit& of gas is collected over water at ?G< in a >.'=' : vessel at ?*.= +Pa. 2hat volume would the dr& gas occup& at standard atmospheric pressure and ?G<3

Continued4
!ind

the pressure of the dr& gas1 Pgas . Ptotal A Pwater )btain Pwater from a reference table. P . ?*.= +Pa A 1.1 +Pa . ?'.* +Pa The remainder of this problem is a pressure and volume comparison. Eo&le7s e,uation will now be used

Continued4
P1B1 P1B1

P\$
?'.*

## Partial Pressure Practice Problem

"

gas is collected over water and occupies a volume of =I9 cm' at *'G<. The total pressure is 1>1.1 +Pa. 2hat volume will the dr& gas occup& at *'G< and standard atmospheric pressure3 The vapor pressure of water at *'G< is ?.9 +Pa. "(81 =*= m:

## Biffusion and Graham1s 2aw

Kinetic

theor& states that molecules travel in straight lines. Molecules often collide with other molecules which alters its path and sends it on another straight path. This is the basic idea of diffusion. "s gas molecules diffuse% the& become more and more evenl& distributed throughout their container.

http100highered.mcgrawKhill.com0sites0>>@\$*I=?==0studentLview>0chapter\$0animationLLhowLdiffusio

as d!ffus!on is the gradual mi*ing of molecules of one gas with molecules of another b8 virtue of their kinetic properties-

BH.Cl

BH( 11 g9mol

HCl (2 g9mol

Graham1s 2aw
relative rates at which two gases under identical conditions of temp and pressure will diffuse varies inversel& as the s,uare roots of the molecular masses of the gases. Molecules of small mass diffuse faster than molecules of large mass because the& travel faster. 8maller molecules can also pass through more substances with greater ease.
The

Dsing

## ,sing Graham1s 2aw

-x1 !ind the relative rate of diffusion for the gases of +r&pton and bromine. rKr . MEr\$ rEr\$ MKr rKr . rEr\$
The

1=I.? g ?'.? g

s,uare root of 1.I>@ . 1.'? 8ince +r&pton is the lighter gas% it will diffuse

MEA@ PAE/2@MS
-x1 <alculate the relative rate of diffusion of helium to argon. "(81 '.\$ times faster -x1 <alculate the relative rate of diffusion of argon to radon. "(81 1.= times faster

## Be-iations from ?deal Gas /eha-ior

2hen

using the ideal gas e,uation% two assumptions were made1 1. Gas particles have no volume. \$. Gas particles have no attractive forces between them. 2e will now examine how real gases can deviate from these assumptions.

## ow are real gases different from ideal?

"ssumption 11 Gases occup& no volume. "t low pressures% both ideal and real gases are far apart% separated b& empt& space. "s pressure is applied% real gases begin to ta+e up more of the empt& space. 4deal gases are still far apart. "n ideal gas can have 5ero volume% but a real gas will become a li,uid under increased pressure.

## ow are real gases different from ideal?

"ssumption \$1 Gases have no attractive forces

between them. 4f gases are made up of polar molecules such as water% the attractive forces are large and the behavior of this real gas is mar+edl& different from an ideal gas. There are even wea+ attractive forces (dispersion forces between noble gases. !or most gases% the ideal gas laws are accurate to about 1M.

What does this show about the effect of intermolecular forces on the pressure e*erted b8 a gas-

## ;eviations from Cdeal =ehavior no gas behaves ideall8- =ehavior becomes

less ideal at high pressures
1 mole of ideal gas PV \$ nRT n= PV RT \$ 1-3 ?epulsive Dorces

Attractive Dorces

## Scuba Chemistry. The /ends

"s divers sin+ down to high pressure water (pressure doubles at 1> m or '' ft % the air that the& breathe becomes more soluble in their blood. 6ecompression sic+ness% or Nthe bendsO occurs as divers rise to the surface% the pressure decreases% and bubbles of gas suddenl& form in the bloodstream as the gas becomes less soluble. 6ecompression sic+ness% also +nown as the bends% is one danger of diving. )ther dangers include nitrogen narcosis% ox&gen toxicit& and simple drowning (if &ou run out of air before ma+ing it bac+ to the surface .

## Barwin 3ward Winner "===4

+he Asaka =eer corporation brews ESuisoE brand beer, in which the carbon dio*ide normall8 used to add fi77 has been replaced b8 the more environmentall8 friendl8 h8drogen gas- +wo side effects of the h8drogen gas have made the beer e*tremel8 popular at karaoke sing)along bars and clubsDirst, because h8drogen molecules are lighter than air, sound waves are transmitted more rapidl8, so individuals whose lungs are filled with the nonto*ic gas can speak with an uncharacteristicall8 high voice- E*ploiting this !uirk of ph8sics, chic urbanites can now sing soprano parts on karaoke sing) along machines after consuming a big gulp of Suiso beer-

CE& emissions

<)\$

CA&

THE END

## WarmFup. What1s the Go'e?

8everal &ears ago% a scientific publication reported that one of their readers% while attending a scientific conference% overheard two colleagues discussing a paper that had been presented. 4n all seriousness% one said to the other something to the effect that% N;e reported that the internal temperature of the 8un was about 1= million degrees% but 4 don7t remember whether that was in <elsius or Kelvin.O