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EDITING: The invisible Art

Who can define editing?


the activity of selecting the scenes to be shown and putting them together to create a film. Film editing is often referred to as the "invisible art" because when it is well-practiced, the spectator can become so engaged that they are not even aware of the editor's work.

Who can name an award winning editor ?

Verna Fields- Jaws (1975), American Gaffiti (1973) Walter Murch- Jarhead (2005), The Talented Mr. Ripley (1999), The Godfather Trilogy (1992), Apocalypse Now (1979). Thelma Shoonmaker- Raging Bull (1980), Goodfellas (1990), Casino (1995), Gangs of New York (2002), The Departed (2006),The Wolf of Wall Street (2013).

Editing refers to the process of selecting, placing together and manipulating shots to create meaning for audiences. Continuity editing is the most common form of editing. Shots are placed together so that action continues smoothly across all shots. Each shot is related to the previous one. Editing takes place in post-production, the last stage of the film-making process. CGI (Computer Generated Images) are usually employed during this stage. CGI is also part of special visual effects. With older forms of production, film stock is used. This was physically cut and joined together.

Editing

Who can name a film they thought was well edited?

www.editorsguild.com

Types of editing
There are 25 single still frames for every 1 second of moving image (Standard Definition) The point where two shots meet is referred to as either: the cut or the edit. Straight cuts are the most common form of edits. The quickest of all transitions. Continuity editing is also known as invisible editing. The cuts are invisible but the action continues smoothly on screen. Continuity Editing is most commonly used in mainstream Hollywood films. Action/Adventure films employ this editing technique very often Another form of an edit is a transition. Here the edit (or cut) is emphasised to signify meaning. E.g. the last shot of a film will fade to black to signify the end. Every transition has its own connotations

Here are some common examples of transitions:


Fade to black: signifies the end of a chapter, scene, film. Can also be a fade to white or any other colour. Dissolve: shot dissolves into the next to signify the passing of time. At some stage during this transition, two shots can be seen on the screen at the same time. Wipe: shot is wiped over by the next. Often signifies the end of a chapter or scene. Rarely used in film, except

Fragment: Shot fragments into various pieces to reveal the next. Also The pace of the editing is determined by what is happening on screen. Fewer cuts and longer shots = slower pace Many cuts and shorter shots = faster pace

Other Editing Techniques


Although transitions are used frequently in the editing process, the conventions of film rely heavily on continuity editing and the use of cut to juxtapose two images, scenes. This is called Cross-cutting: Several scenes taking place simultaneously are shown alongside each other. Action cuts back and forth between each setting. Also known as inter-cutting. Example: The Godfather (1975) The Baptism scene http://www.criticalcommons.org/Members/Simmons/clips/c rosscut-and-parallel-action-the-godfather-baptism/view
What effect does Cross-cutting produce on the spectator? It allows audiences to focus on the action taking place on screen. Continuity Editing compliments action sequences.

Things to consider once you have your footage: 180 Degree Rule in Continuity Editing

Now it is your turn

Using your footage: cut a continuity sequence then evaluate its success. Or Cut a parallel action sequence and again assess.

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