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# Full wave CenterTapped transformer

Rectifier Circuit

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## Operation of the CenterTapped Transformer Rectifier Circuit

For the positive half of the AC cycle:

## For the negative half of the AC cycle:

No matter the value of the turns ratio the output is always Vsec for ideal diode

Vout

or for practical model Where Vsec is the end to end voltage of the secondary transformer winding V PIV >2Vm for ideal diode and PIV >2Vm + 0.7 for practical model Note that Vm here is the transformer secondary voltage to the tap. VDC = 0.636(Vpout) (since the area above the axis is double the area obtained for the half wave rectifier) Ir.m.s=Ipout/2
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Vout

Vsec 0.7 2

Example
Show the voltage waveforms across each half of the secondary winding and across RL when a 100 V peak sine wave is applied to the primary winding. Also, what PIV rating must the diodes have?

Each diode must have a minimum PIV rating of 50 V (neglecting diode drop). The waveforms are shown in Figure

## Full-Wave Rectification: Bridge Network

The dc level obtained from a sinusoidal input can be improved 100% using a process called full-wave rectification. The most familiar network is bridge configuration with 4 diodes.

## Operation of the Bridge Rectifier Circuit

For the positive half of the AC cycle:

## FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION

The rectification process can be improved by using more diodes in a Full Wave Rectifier circuit.

## Full Wave rectification produces a greater DC output.

The effect of using a silicon diode with VT: The dc level will change to:
VDC = 0.636( Vm- 2VT)

PIV =Vm for ideal diode and PIV = Vm+0.7 for practical diode model
Ir.m.s=Ipout/2

Example
Determine the output voltage for the bridge rectifier in Figure . What PIV rating is required for the silicon diodes? The transformer is specified to have a 12 V rms secondary voltage for the standard 110 V across the primary.

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Solution
The peak output voltage is (taking into account the two diode drops) VPsec = 1.414Vrms= 17 V VPout =VPsec -1.4 = 15.6V The PIV for each diode is PIV=VPout +0.7V=15.6V+0.7V=16.3V

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## POWER SUPPLY FILTERS (PEAK DETECTORS)

The pulsating dc output of a half-wave rectifier or the output of a full-wave rectifier must be filtered to reduce the large voltage variations. The figure below illustrates the filtering concept showing a nearly smooth dc output voltage from the filter. The small amount of fluctuation in the filter output voltage is called ripple.

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Capacitor Filter
A half-wave rectifier with a capacitor filter is shown in Figure . RL represents the equivalent resistance of a load. We will use the half-wave rectifier to illustrate the principle, and then expand the concept to full-wave rectification. During the positive first quarter-cycle of the input, the diode is forward-biased , allowing the capacitor to charge to within 0.7 V of the input peak.

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When the input begins to decrease below its peak, as shown in part (b), the capacitor retains its charge and the diode becomes reversebiased. During the remaining part of the cycle, the capacitor can discharge only through the load resistance at a rate determined by the RLC time constant, which is normally long compared to the period of the input.

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The larger the time constant, the less the capacitor will discharge. During the first quarter of the next cycle, the diode will again become forward-biased when the input voltage exceeds the capacitor voltage by approximately 0.7 V. The variation in the output voltage due to the charging and discharging is called the ripple voltage. The smaller the ripple, the better the filtering action

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For a given input frequency, the output frequency of a full-wave rectifier is twice that of a half-wave rectifier. This makes a full-wave rectifier easier to filter. The full-wave rectified voltage has a smaller ripple than does a half-wave voltage for the same load resistance and capacitor values.

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Ripple Factor
The ripple factor is an indication of the effectiveness of the filter and is defined as

Vr r VDC

where Vr is the peak-to-peak ripple voltage and VDC is the dc value of the filter's output voltage. The lower the ripple factor, the better the filter. The ripple factor can be lowered by increasing the value of the filter capacitor or increasing the load resistance.

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For a full-wave rectifier with a sufficiently high capacitance filter, if VDC is within 10% of the peak rectified input voltage, then the expressions for the peak-to-peak ripple voltage, Vr and VDC are as follows:

1 Vr ( )V p (in ) fR L C

VDC

1 (1 )V p ( in ) 2 fR L C

where Vp(in) is the peak rectified full-wave voltage applied to the filter and f is 60 (50) Hz for a half-wave rectifier or 120(100) Hz for a full-wave rectifier
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Example
Determine the ripple factor for the filtered bridge rectifier .

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