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Automatic Gate system for Railways

Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad

Done By Mayank Kurveti Gude Prithvi N.Chenchu Malla Reddy Padmasini A.G.

Introduction
This Project explicitly deals with one of the most common problem that is traffic jams beside a Railway crossing. Since gates of Railway crossing are usually manually operated, for most of the times, gates are kept closed for no reason increasing road traffic. This project introduces an integrated circuit that serves this purpose automatically. No human interference in this Railway gate system will make it less vulnerable to such traffic jams and mishandling in gate opening and closing.

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Working Principle
This Circuit basically works on the principle of Light dependency. A Laser and LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) are the main components of this circuit. Circuit works on the principle that when light from laser is allowed to fall on LDR then circuit will ensure that gates are open and when isnt so gates are closed.

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Circuit Diagram

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Components Involved
Laser Light Dependent Resistor Potentiometer Resistors LM 324 Comparator JK Flip Flop DC Motor Connecting Wires Timer Circuit

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JK Flip Flop
It is actually a circuit made up of 2 cross coupled NOR gates. It has a couple of stable states hence it is used to store information. Its a dual stable multivibrator. It is usually used to change the state of signals across 2 inputs in order to get 1 or 2 outputs.

LM 324 Comparator
The LM324 is a low voltage (2.75.5V) version of the dual and quad commodity op amps. The LM324 has rail-to-rail output swing capability and the input common-mode voltage range includes ground. It reduces noise pickup and increase signal integrity.

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Working of the Circuit


The circuit depends on the principle of Light Dependendent Resistor(LDR). Circuit comprises of Laser source and LDR, until and unless light from laser source is in contact with LDR ,the circuit will allow gate to remain open. When the train passes, it becomes an obstacle that doesnt allow laser light fall over the LDR,this initiates the circuit . Circuit ensures gate is closed until a specific interval of time. When train passes by, circuit is again opened hence motor will direct the gates to open. Low speed of closing of gate ensures that if interruption isnt large then gate is opened. Timer Circuit is used to direct the opening of gate

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Merits
Introducing the following circuit will increase the efficiency of the system. Management of Road transport will be better. It will also minimize the risk of deaths in accident with trains. Less traffic jam will be there.

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Demerits
It includes a heavy infrastructure for construction of such automatic gateway system. Employment will be decreased.(Major problem) There is a chance of error because trains arent the same in terms of bogies attached to it.

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References
www.google.com www.wikipedia.org www.physics.com

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