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Introduction to Management

Instructor: Syed M. Zubair Azam

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Topics to be explored
1. What Management is? What its benefits are? 2. Seven challenges to being an exceptional manager 3. What managers do? 4. Pyramid Power: Levels and areas of Management

5. Roles managers must play successfully


6. The skills exceptional managers need www.Twitter.com/syedzubairazam
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Management Defined
the pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively (Konicki & Williams, 2011).

Getting work done from others (Follet, M. P)


The Process of Planning, organizing, leading

and controlling the organizational resources to


meet/fulfill organizational goals effectively and efficiently.
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What is a Process?
Output of Activity 1 Is Input of activity 2 Output of Activity 2 Is Input of activity 3

Activity 1

Task 1 Task 2

Activity 2

Task 1 Task 2

Activity 3

Task 1 Task 2

Process: combination of different activities arranged in a sequence. Activity: Sequential or Random or concurrent Combination of different Tasks. Task: a single work being performed.
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What are organizational resources?


Financial resources Physical resources Human resources Informational resources

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Organizational Goals
Short-term goals Long-term goals Goals necessary to achieve in order to be called successful; (The Bottom-Line)
Profitability Customer retention Employee Happiness Culture of continuous Improvement Integrity
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Efficiency vs. Effectiveness


Effectiveness is simply meeting the ends or goals the organization is trying to achieve. Efficiency is the means (Resources) of attaining the organizations goals. It is simply achieving the goals by using the minimum level of Means or resources.

Effective organizations achieve results, make the right decisions, and successfully carry them out so that the goals are achieved

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Efficient organizations use resources like people, money, and raw materials wisely and cost effectively 7

What Managers Do: The Four Principal Functions

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Rewards of Management
you can benefit from management by; and

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ORGANIZATIONS VALUE MANAGERS


Good managers create value through the multiplier effect where their influence on the organization is multiplied beyond what could be achieved by someone acting alone The rewards of being an exceptional manager typically include good salaries and many benefits. The CEO of Chesapeake Energy earned $112 million (including a $77 million bonus) in 2008
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Six Challenges To Being A Star Manager


To be a star manager, you need to 1. manage for competitive advantage 2. manage for diversity in race, ethnicity, gender, and so on 3. manage for the effects of globalization 4. manage for the effects of information technology 5. manage to maintain ethical standards 6. manage for the achievement of your own happiness and lifetime goals
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CHALLENGE # 1: MANAGING FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGESTAYING AHEAD OF RIVALS

Competitive Advantage is the ability of an organization to produce goods or services more efficiently than competitors do, thereby outperforming them
Dependability Speed Flexibility

Quality

Competitive Advantage

Cost
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CHALLENGE # 2: MANAGING FOR DIVERSITYTHE FUTURE WONT RESEMBLE THE PAST

In the future, managers will be challenged to maximize the contributions of employees that are diverse in gender, age, race, and ethnicity.

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CHALLENGE #3: MANAGING FOR GLOBALIZATION THE EXPANDING MANAGEMENT UNIVERSE

Managing for globalization is a complex, ongoing challenge. It is important for managers to understand how cultural differences affect an organization. In Japan it is considered rude to look directly in the eye for more than a few seconds, and in Greece the hand-waving gesture commonly used in America for goodbye is considered an insult.
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CHALLENGE # 4: MANAGING FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

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CHALLENGE #5: MANAGING FOR ETHICAL STANDARDS

Pressure to meet sales, production, and other targets can create ethical dilemmas for managers .

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CHALLENGE # 6: MANAGING FOR YOUR OWN HAPPINESS AND LIFE GOALS

Managers need to consider whether meeting the organizations challenges is also personally fulfilling

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Power Pyramids: Levels and Areas of Management

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Power Pyramid: Levels of Management


Top managers make long-term decisions about the overall direction of the organization and establish the objectives, policies, and strategies for it Middle managers implement the policies and plans of the top managers above them and supervise and coordinate the activities of the firstline managers below them First line managers make short-term operating decisions, directing the daily tasks of nonmanagerial personnel
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Power Pyramid: Areas of Management


Functional managers are responsible for just one organizational activity for example Director of Finance general managers are responsible for several organizational activities like Executive Vice President

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Managerial Roles
Henry Herzberg, in 1960, observed 5 Chief Executives for 1 week. "There was no break in the pace of activity during office hours, The mail (average of 36 pieces per day), telephone calls (average of five per day), and meetings (average of eight) accounted for almost every minute from the moment these executives entered their offices in the morning until they departed in the evening."
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Managerial Roles
Herzberg Research Reveals that Managers rely more on verbal than on written communication managers work long hours at an intense pace managers work is characterized by fragmentation, brevity, & variety

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Managerial Roles
Interpersonal roles (figurehead, leader, and liaison) involve managers interacting with people inside and outside their work units Informational roles (monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson) require managers to receive and communicate information Decisional roles (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator) require managers to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities
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1. Interpersonal Roles
Figurehead Role
In your figurehead role, you show visitors around your company, attend employee birthday parties, and present ethical guidelines to your subordinates. In other words, you perform symbolic tasks that represent your organization.

Leadership Role Liasion Role

In your role of leader, you are responsible for the actions of your subordinates, since their successes and failures reflect on you. Your leadership is expressed in your decisions about training, motivating, and disciplining people.

In your liaison role, you must act like a politician, working with other people outside your work unit and organization to develop alliances that will help you achieve your organization's goals.
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Informational Roles
Monitor Role Disseminator Role
As a monitor, you should be constantly alert for useful information, whether gathered from newspaper stories about the competition or gathered from snippets of conversation with subordinates you meet in the hallway.

Workers complain they never know what's going on? That probably means their supervisor failed in the role of disseminator. Managers need to constantly disseminate important information to employees, as via e-mail and meetings.

Spokesperson Role

You are expected, of course, to be a diplomat, to put the best face on the activities of your work unit or organization to people outside it. This is the informational role of spokesperson.

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Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur Role Disturbance Handler
Resource Allocator
A good manager is expected to be an entrepreneur, to initiate and encourage change and innovation.

Unforeseen problems-from product defects to international currency crises-require you be a disturbance handler, fixing problems.

Because you'll never have enough time, money, and so on, you'll need to be a resource allocator, setting priorities about use of resources.

Negotiator Role

To be a manager is to be a continual negotiator, working with others inside and outside the organization to accomplish your goals.
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Managerial Authority
Authority
The right to make decisions, direct others work, and give orders.

Implied authority
The authority exerted by an HR manager by virtue of others knowledge that he or she has access to top management.

Line authority
The authority exerted by an HR manager by directing the activities of the people in his or her own department and in service areas.
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Skills, Exceptional Managers need


Good managers need to have technical skills -the ability to perform a specific job conceptual skills -the ability to think analytically and human skills -the ability to interact with others

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Assignment 1
Written Assignment: Explain the difference between an Entrepreneur and a Manager.
Last Date of Submission
21-Fabruary-2014 (Friday).

Article to be studied: Five Forces Model shaping the global economy


NO Plaigerism please, otherwise assignment will be rejected
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