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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EYES

REPORTER: ANGOD, LADY

EYE
It is 1 inch in diameter and is located in the anterior portion of the orbit.

ORBIT
the bony structure of the skull that surrounds the eye and offers protection to the eye

4-cm high, four-sided pyramid, surrounded on three sides by the sinuses: ethmoid (medially), frontal (superiorly), and maxillary (inferiorly).

OPTIC FORAMEN Entrance for optic nerve and ophthalmic artery

EYELIDS Protect anterior portion of the eye INNER/OUTER CANTHUS


The lacrimal

Triangular spaces formed by junction of eyelids


LACRIMAL GLAND Produces tears which are vital to eye health CONJUCTIVA
Provides barrier to the external environment and nourishes the eye GOBLET CELLS- secrete lubricating mucus FORNIX- junction of palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva

gland produces tears. Tears are drained through the punctum into the lacrimal duct and sac

The four rectus muscles and two oblique muscles are innervated by cranial nerves (CN) III, IV, and VI SCLERA(white of the eye)dense fibrous structure which makes up posterior 5/6s of the eye; maintains SHAPE and protects eye from TRAUMA

EXTERNAL LAYER- The fibrous coat that supports the eye which contains the SCLERA & CORNEA

CORNEA-transparent, avascular dome-like structures located anteriorly and is the MAIN REFRACTING SURFACE

5 main layers of cornea EPITHELIUM BOWMANS MEMBRANE STROMA DESCEMETs MEMBRANE EPITHELIUM

ANTERIOR CHAMBER Contains the AQUEOUS HUMOR which nourishes the cornea

NORMAL IOP 10-21mmHg

THE MIDDLE LAYER or UVEA


The second layer of the eyeball Vascular and heavily pigmented Consists of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris

1. CHOROID is the dark brown membrane located between the sclera and the retina that has dark pigmentation to prevent light from reflecting internally. choroid lines most of the sclera and is attached to the retina but can detach easily from the sclera. contains many blood vessels and supplies nutrients to the retina 2. CILIARY BODY connects the choroid with the iris and secretes aqueous humor that helps give the eye its shape; the muscles of the ciliary body control the thickness of the lens

THE MIDDLE LAYER


POSTERIOR CHAMBER between vitreous and iris AQUEOUS FLUID is manufactured by CILIARY BODY 3. IRIS is the colored portion of the eye, located in front of the lens has a central circular opening called the pupil; the pupil controls the amount of light admitted into the retina (darkness produces dilation and light produces constriction

Lens

Transparent convex structure behind the iris and in front of the vitreous body The lens bends rays of light so that the light falls on the retina. The curve of the lens changes to focus on near or distant objects. ENABLES ACCOMODATION

Aqueous humor
The aqueous humor is a

clear watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. fluid drains into the canal of Schlemm. The anterior chamber lies between the cornea and the iris. The posterior chamber lies between the iris and the lens.

VITREOUS BODY
Contains a gelatinous substance that occupies the vitreous chamber, the space between the lens and the retina transmits light and gives shape to the posterior eye. VITREOUS HUMOR

Gel-like substance that maintains the shape of the eye Provides additional physical support to the retina

Canal of Schlemm
it permits fluid to

drain out of the eye into the systemic circulation so a constant intraocular pressure is maintained

INTERNAL LAYER
Consists of the RETINA, a thin, delicate structure in which

the fibers of the optic nerve are distributed

RETINA
is bordered externally by the choroid and sclera and internally by the vitreous retina is the visual receptive layer of the eye in which light waves are changed into nerve impulses; it contains blood vessels and photoreceptors called rods and cones.

Optic disk(entrance to retina)


The optic disk is a creamy

Rods and

cones(Photoreceptor Cells) are responsible for peripheral vision and function at reduced levels of illumination. ; absent in fovea function at bright levels of illumination and are responsible for color vision and central vision; located mostly in fovea

pink to white depressed area in the retina. The optic nerve enters and exits the eyeball at this area. This area is called the blind spot because it contains only nerve fibers, lacks photoreceptor cells, and is insensitive to light.

Macula lutea
Small, oval, yellowish-

pink area located laterally and temporally to the optic disk The central depressed part of the macula is the fovea centralis, the area of sharpest and keenest vision, where most acute vision occurs

THE EYE
Eye MUSCLES
Muscles do not work

independently but work with the muscle that produces the opposite movement. Rectus muscles exert their pull when the eye turns temporally. Oblique muscles exert their pull when the eye turns nasally.

THE EYE
Blood vessels
The ophthalmic artery

Nerves
Cranial nerve II: Optic

is the major artery supplying the structures in the eye.


The ophthalmic veins

drain the blood from the eye.

nerve (nerve of sight) Cranial nerve III: Oculomotor Cranial nerve IV: Trochlear Cranial nerve VI: Abducens

THE VISUAL PATHWAY


MAJORCOMPONENTS: RETINA OPTIC NERVE OPTIC CHIASM OPTIC TRACTS LATERAL GENICULATE BODIES OPTIC RADIATIONS VISUAL CORTEX AREA OF BRAIN