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Chapter 3

Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Chapter Outline
Values Assessing Cultural Values Values in the Canadian Workplace Attitudes

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace


1. 2. 3. 4. What are values? How can we understand values across cultures? Are there unique Canadian values? What are attitudes and why are they important?

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Values
Values
Concepts or beliefs that guide how we make decisions about and evaluations of behaviours and events

Framework for understanding values


Milton Rokeachs value survey

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Rokeach Value Survey


Types of values
Terminal: Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime. Instrumental: Preferable ways of behaving.

Importance of values
Values generally influence attitudes and behaviour.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 3-1 Terminal and Instrumental Values in Rokeach Value Survey

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press, 1973), p. 56. Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 3-2 Value Ranking of Executives, Union Members, and Activists (Top Five Only)
EXECUTIVES Terminal 1. Self-respect 2. Family security 3. Freedom Instrumental 1. Honest 2. Responsible 3. Capable UNION MEMBERS Terminal 1. Family security 2. Freedom 3. Happiness 4. Self-respect 5. Mature love Instrumental 1. Responsible 2. Honest 3. Courageous 4. Independent 5. Capable Terminal 1. Equality 2. A world of peace 3. Family security 4. Self-respect 5. Freedom ACTIVISTS Instrumental 1. Honest 2. Helpful 3. Courageous 4. Responsible 5. Capable

4. A sense of 4. Ambitious Accomplishment 5. Happiness 5. Independent

Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Norm ative Implications, in Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies , ed. W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123-144. Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Ethical Values
Ethics
The study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour, and inform us whether actions are right or wrong.

Ethical values are related to moral judgments about right and wrong.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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The Magnificent Seven Principles


Kent Hodgson identified seven principles:
1. Dignity of human life 2. Autonomy 3. Honesty 4. Loyalty 5. Fairness 6. Humaneness 7. The common good

Source: K. Hodgson, Adapting Ethical Decisions to a Global Marketplace, Management Review 81, no.5 (May 1992), pp.53-57. Reprinted by permission.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Assessing Cultural Values


GLOBE Dimensions
Assertiveness Future orientation Gender differentiation Uncertainty avoidance Power distance Individualism versus collectivism In-group collectivism Performance orientation Humane orientation
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Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

Exhibit 3-3 GLOBE Highlights

Source: M. Javidan and R. J. House, Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager: Lessons from Project GLOBE, Organizational Dynamics, Spring 2001, pp. 289-305. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Values in the Canadian Workplace


Cultural Differences Generational Differences

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Cultural Differences
2001 immigrant population
44 percent of Torontos population 38 percent of Vancouvers 18.6 percent of Montreals

2001 Census findings on language


17 percent spoke neither English nor French. Of these:
Largest majority spoke Chinese (either Mandarin or Cantonese) Followed by Italian, German, Punjabi, and Spanish
Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 3-4 Canadian and American Value Differences

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Francophone and Anglophone Values


Francophone Values
More collectivist or group-oriented Greater need for achievement Concerned with interpersonal aspects of workplace Value affiliation

Anglophone Values
Individualist or Icentred More task-centred Take more risks Value autonomy

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Aboriginal Values
More collectivist in orientation. More community-oriented. Greater sense of family in the workplace. Greater affiliation and loyalty. Power distance lower than non-Aboriginal culture. Greater emphasis on consensual decision making.
Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Asian Values
North America East and Southeast Asia
Guanxi relations: based on reciprocation Relationships meant to be longterm and enduring Enforcement relies on personal power and authority Governed by shame (external pressures on performance) Networked relations: based on self-interest Relationships viewed with immediate gains Enforcement relies on institutional law Governed by guilt (internal pressures on performance)

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Generational Differences
The Elders (those over 60)
Core values: Belief in order, authority, discipline, and the Golden Rule.

Baby Boomers (born mid-1940s to mid1960s)


Autonomous rebels, anxious communitarians, connected enthusiasts, disengaged Darwinists.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Generational Differences
Generation X (born mid-1960s to early 1980s)
Thrill-seeking materialists, aimless dependents, social hedonists, new Aquarians, autonomous postmaterialists.

The Ne(x)t Generation (born between 1977 and 1997)


Creators, not recipients. Curious, contrarian, flexible, collaborative, high in self-esteem.
Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Attitudes
Positive or negative feelings concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are less stable than values.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Types of Attitudes
Job Satisfaction
An individuals general attitude toward his or her job.

Organizational Commitment
A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
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Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

Canadian Job Satisfaction


40 percent of Canadians are very satisfied with their jobs.
47 percent of Americans are happy. 54 percent of Danish workers are happy.

40 percent of Canadians say


They would not recommend their place of work. They never see any of the benefits of their companys profitability. Red tape and bureaucracy are the biggest barriers to job satisfaction.

55 percent of Canadians say they have too much to do.


Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Job Satisfaction and Individual Performance


Satisfaction affects:
Individual productivity Organizational productivity Organizational citizenship behaviour Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction


Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 3-5 Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

Source: Reprinted with permission from Journal of Applied Social Psychology 15 no. 1, p. 83. V. H. Winston and Sons, 360 South Beach Boulevard, Palm Beach, FL 33480. All rights reserved.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Organizational Commitment
Three Types of Commitment
Affective commitment
An individuals relationship to the organization.

Normative commitment
The obligation an individual feels to staying with an organization.

Continuance commitment
An individuals calculation that it is in his or her best interest to stay with the organization based on the perceived costs of leaving it.
Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Five Reasons Employees Commit Themselves


They are proud of [the companys] aspirations, accomplishments, and legacy; they share its values. They know what each person is expected to do, how performance is measured, and why it matters. They are in control of their own destinies; they savour the high-risk, high-reward work environment. They are recognized mostly for the quality of their individual performance. They have fun and enjoy the supportive and highly interactive environment.
Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Summary and Implications


1. What are Values?
Values guide how we make decisions about and evaluations of behaviours and events. Hofstede found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture. This insight is expanded on by his GLOBE program. Canadian values are affected by both generational and cultural factors.
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2. How can we understand values across cultures?

3. Are there unique Canadian values?

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

Summary and Implications


4. What are attitudes and why are they important?
Attitudes are positive or negative feelings about objects, people, or events. They affect the way people respond to situations.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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OB at Work

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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For Review
1. Describe the GLOBE projects nine dimensions of national culture. 2. Compare Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal values. 3. How might differences in generational values affect the workplace? 4. What might explain low levels of employee job satisfaction in recent years. 5. Are satisfied workers productive workers? Explain your answer.
Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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For Review Continued


6. What is the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism? Job satisfaction and turnover? Which is the stronger relationship? 7. Contrast exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as employee responses to job satisfaction.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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For Critical Thinking


1. Thirty-five years ago, young employees we hired were ambitious, conscientious, hard-working, and honest. Todays young workers dont have the same values. Do you agree or disagree with this managers comments? Support your position. 2. Do you think there might be any positive and significant relationship between the possession of certain personal values and successful career progression in organizations such as Merrill Lynch, the Canadian Union of Postal Workers (CUPW), and the City of Reginas police department? Discuss.

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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For Critical Thinking


3. Managers should do everything they can to enhance the job satisfaction of their employees. Do you agree or disagree? Support your position. 4. When employees are asked whether they would again choose the same work or whether they would want their children to follow in their footsteps, fewer than half typically answer yes. What, if anything, do you think this implies about employee job satisfaction?

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Breakout Group Exercises


Form small groups to discuss the following topics. Each person in the group should first identify 3 to 5 key personal values.
1. Identify the extent to which values overlap in your group. 2. Try to uncover with your group members the source of some of your key values (e.g., parents, peer group, teachers, church). 3. What kind of workplace would be most suitable for the values that you hold most closely?

Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Working With Others Exercise


Understanding Cultural Values
1. Break into groups of 5-6. 2. Pretend that half of you have been raised in Canadian culture, and half of you have been raised in another culture assigned by your instructor. 3. Consider the differences in the two cultures for: power distance, individualism, and uncertainty avoidance. (Refer to exhibit 3-3) 4. a) What challenges will you face working together? b) What steps could be taken to work together more effectively?
Chapter 3, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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