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Presented By

Abdul Muneeb Khan



What are Harmonics
Sources of Harmonics
Effects of Harmonics
Standards for Harmonics Limitation
Harmonics Mitigation
Active & Passive Filters
Selection of Filter for Specific Application
Conclusion


Plan of Presentation
A harmonic is a signal or wave whose frequency is an integral (whole-
number) multiple of the frequency of some reference (fundamental) signal or
wave.
currents or voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples
(h=0,1,2,N) of the fundamental power frequency








Positive Sequence Harmonics ( 4th, 7th, 10th , . (6n+1) th )
Negative Sequence Harmonics ( 2nd, 5th, 8th (6n-1) th )
Zero sequence Harmonics ( 3rd, 6th, 9th, .. (6n-3) th )
What are Power System Harmonics
Current Harmonics are produced by Current Stiff Non linear Loads such as

Thyristor converter fed DC Motor Drives
CSI Based DC Drives
Switch Mode Power Supplies
Fluorescent Lamps
Personal Computers



a) Current Source nonlinear load
HARMONIC SOURCES
Thyristor rectifier for dc drives,
heater drives, etc.
Per-phase equivalent
circuit of thyristor rectifier

Diode rectifier for ac
drives, electronic
equipment, etc
b) Voltage source nonlinear load
Per-phase equivalent
circuit of diode rectifier
Voltage Harmonics are produced by either due to harmonic Current
demanded by non linear load with factor of source impedance or due to
Voltage Stiff Non linear Loads which involves voltage clamping & notching
such as

Diode Rectifiers with capacitive filter feeding DC Links
VSI Based AC Motor Drives
Switch Mode Power Supplies
Fluorescent Lamps
Personal Computers



0
10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
0
10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
0
10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

TYPE OF NONLINEAR
LOAD


TYPICAL WAREFORM


THD%


1-
Uncontrolled Rectifier



80%
(high 3
rd

component)



1-
Semicontrolled
Rectifier Bridge



2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
,......
harmonic
components


6 Pulse Rectifier
with output voltage
filtering and without
input reactor filter



80%

5, 7, 11, .

INPUT CURRENT OF DIFFERENT
NOLINEAR LOADS


0
10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
Time (mS)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

6 - Pulse Rectifier
with large output
inductor



28%
5, 7, 11, ..


6 - Pulse Rectifier
with output voltage
filtering and with 3%
reactor filter or with
continues output current



40%
5, 7, 11, ..



12 - Pulse Rectifier




15%
11, 13, ..

Harmonics Detected on PCs
Recorded Current Waveform
Harmonic Spectrum for PC Load Current
Harmonics Detected on Fluorescent Lamps
Recorded Current Waveform
Harmonic Spectrum for Fluorescent Lamps
Harmonics Detected on Speed drive
Recorded Current Waveform
Harmonic Levels for Variable Speed Drive
Voltage and current profiles in a
commercial building
Effects of Harmonics on Power System
When a voltage and/or current waveform is distorted, it causes
abnormal operating conditions in a power system such as:

Voltage Harmonics can cause additional heating in induction and
synchronous motors and generators.
Voltage Harmonics with high peak values can weaken insulation
in cables, windings, and capacitors.
Voltage Harmonics can cause malfunction of different electronic
components and circuits that utilize the voltage waveform for
synchronization or timing.
Voltage Harmonics can cause problem in AVR of the small
Generator that is only source to power system.
Voltage Harmonics can cause problem in speed governor of a
small generator that is only source to power system
Current Harmonics in motor windings can create
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).



Current Harmonics flowing through cables can cause higher heating
over and above the heating that is created from the fundamental
component.
Current Harmonics flowing through a transformer can cause higher
heating over and above the heating that is created by the fundamental
component.
Current Harmonics flowing through circuit breakers and switch-gear
can increase their heating losses.
RESONANT CURRENTS which are created by current harmonics and
the different filtering topologies of the power system can cause
capacitor failures and/or fuse failures in the capacitor or other
electrical equipment.
False tripping of circuit breakers and protective relays.

Effects of Harmonics on Power System
How to quantify Harmonics
Total Harmonic Distortion-THD: the contribution of all harmonic
frequency Currents/Voltages to the fundamental current

THD: Ratio of the RMS of the harmonic content to the RMS of the
Fundamental



Current THD-I
Voltage THD-V
How to quantify Harmonics
Distortion Factor is the ratio of fundamental component of current or
voltage to the RMS value of distorted voltage or current respectively


DF =



=1
2
1
~
h
h
I
I

DF =
2
1
1
THD
I
+
Standards of Harmonics Limitation
IEEE/IEC


IEEE 519-1992 Standard: Recommended Practices
and Requirements for Harmonic Control in
Electrical Power Systems (Current Distortion Limits for
120v-69kv DS)

Table 1: Current Harmonic Limits














Ratio
Iscc / Iload
Harmonic odd
numbers (<11)
Harmonic odd
numbers (>35)
THD-i
< 20 4.0 % 0.3 % 5.0 %
20 - 50 7.0 % 0.5 % 8.0 %
50 - 100 10.0 % 0.7 % 12.0 %
>1000 15.0 % 1.4 % 20.0 %
Standard of Harmonics Limitation
















IEEE 519-1992 Standard: Recommended Practices and
Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power
Systems (Voltage Distortion Limits)

Table 2: Voltage Harmonic Limits










Bus Voltage
Voltage Harmonic limit
as (%) of Fundamental
THD-v (%)
<= 69Kv 3.0 5.0
69 - 161Kv 1.5 2.5
>= 161 Kv 1.0 1.5
METHODOLOGY FOR
COMPUTING DISTORTION
Step 1: Compute the individual current harmonic distortion at each
dedicated bus using different Software programs (i.e. SIMULINK,
SPICE, etc.) or tables that provide the current distortion of
nonlinear loads.
Step 2: Compute the voltage and current harmonic content at the Point of
Common Coupling (PCC) which is located at the input of the
industrial power system.
- Each individual harmonic current at the PCC is the sum of
harmonic current contribution from each dedicated bus.
- The load current at PCC is the sum of the load current
contribution from each dedicated bus.
- The maximum demand load current at PCC can be found by
computing the load currents for each branch feeder and multiply
by a demand factor to obtain feeder demand. Then the sum of all
feeder demands is divided by a diversity factor to obtain the
maximum demand load current.

Step 3: Choose a base MVA and base KV for the system use the following equations
in order to compute individual and total current and voltage harmonic
distortions at PCC and any other point within the power system.
I
b
= Base current in Amps
Amps
b
b
kV
MVA
3
10
3

=
= System impedance = p.u.
sc
b
MVA
MVA
MVA
b
= Base MVA, MVA
sc
= short circuit MVA at the point of interest
V
H
= Percent individual harmonic voltage distortion =
( ) ( ) Volts 100 =
s
b
h
Z h
I
I
s
Z
h = harmonic order
100 %
2
1
2
2

=

=
V
V
THD
h
h
u 100
I
I
% THD
1
2
2 h
2
h
i

(
(

=
I
H
= Percent individual harmonic distortion =
100
I
I
L
h

I
sc
= Short Circuit current at the point under consideration.
I
L
= Estimated maximum demand load current
S.C. Ratio = Short circuit Ratio
D
sc
L
sc
MVA
MVA
I
I
= =
MVA
D
= Demand MVA
ONCE THE SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO IS KNOWN, THE IEEE CURRENT
HARMONIC LIMITS CAN BE FOUND AS SPECIFIED IN TABLE I OF THE
IEEE 519-1992 POWER QUALITY STANDARDS
USING THE ABOVE EQUATIONS VALUES OF IDIVINDUAL AND TOTAL
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT HARMONIC DISTORTION CAN BE COMPUTED
AND COMPARED WITH THE IEEE LIMITS
Step 4: Determine preliminary filter design.
Step 5: Compute THD
v
and THD
i
magnitudes and impedance versus
frequency plots with filters added to the system, one at a time.
SIMULINK or PSPICE software programs can be used for final
adjustments.
Step 6: Analyze results and specify final filter design.
Mitigation of Harmonics

Mitigation of power system harmonics can be categorized as corrective
solutions and precautionary solutions.

Precautionary (Preventive) solutions aim to avoid harmonics and their
consequences.
o Phase cancellation or harmonic control in power convertors.
o Developing procedures and methods to control, reduce or eliminate
harmonics in power system equipment; mainly capacitors, transformers and
generators.

Corrective (remedial) solutions are the techniques to overcome the
existing problems.
o The use of active and passive filters
o Reconfiguration of the feeders or reallocation of capacitor banks to
overcome the resonance.











Mitigation of Harmonics












Delta-Delta and Delta-Wye Transformers
Using two separate utility feed transformers with equal
non-linear loads
Shifting the phase relationship to various six-pulse
converters through cancellation techniques






Figure 7: Delta-Delta and Delta-Wye Transformers

Mitigation of Harmonics













Isolation-Interface Transformers
The potential to voltage match by stepping up or
stepping down the system voltage, and by providing a
neutral ground reference for nuisance ground faults
The best solution when utilizing AC or DC drives that
use SCRs/GTO/SSR.. as bridge rectifiers

Line Isolation-Reactors
More commonly used for their low cost
Adding a small reactor in series with capacitor bank
forms a Blocking series Filter.
1) Parallel-passive filter for current-source nonlinear loads
TYPES OF FILTERS
Harmonic Sinc
Low Impedance
Cheapest
VA ratings = V
T
(Load Harmonic current + reactive current of the filter)
2) Series-passive filter for voltage-source nonlinear loads
Harmonic damp
High-impedance
Cheapest
VA ratings = Load current (Fundamental drop across filter + Load Harmonic
Voltage)
3) Basic parallel-active filter for current source in nonlinear loads

4) Basic series-active filter for voltage-source in
nonlinear loads
5) Parallel combination of parallel active and parallel passive
6) Series combination of series active and series passive
7) Hybrid of series active and parallel passive
8) Hybrid of parallel active and series passive
ACTIVE FILTERING

Parallel type Series type
SHUNT ACTIVE FILTERS
By inserting a parallel active filter in a non-linear load location we can inject
a harmonic current component with the same amplitude as that of the load in
to the AC system. They damp harmonic propagation in a distribution feeder
or between two distribution feeders.

C
F
L
Equivalent circuit
SERIES ACTIVE FILTERS
By inserting a series Active Filter between the AC source and the load
where the harmonic source is existing we can force the source current to
become sinusoidal. The technique is based on a principle of harmonic
isolation by controlling the output voltage of the series active filter.


Equivalent Circuit
The series active filter exhibits high impedance to harmonic current and
consequently blocks harmonic current flow from the load to the source.
-2500
-1500
-500
500
1500
2500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
I
[A]
Time [ms]
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
[
%

I
1
]
Harmonics
-5000
-2500
0
2500
5000
0 10 20 30 40
Time [ms]
I

D
y
n
a
c
o
m
p

[
A
]
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Harmonics
[
%
I
1
]
RESULTS OF ACTIVE FILTERING

Input current of a 6-pulse Rectifier driving a DC machine without any input filtering

Input current with Active Filtering

-1000
-500
0
500
1000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
U

[
V
]
Time [ms]
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
[
%

U
1
]
Harmonics
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
U

[
V
]
Time [ms]
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
[
%

U
]
Harmonics
Typical 6-pulse drive voltage waveform
Voltage source improvement with active filtering
3- HYBRID ACTIVE-PASSIVE FILTER
Compensation of current harmonics and displacement
power factor can be achieved simultaneously.
HYBRID ACTIVE-PASSIVE FILTER
Single-phase equivalent circuit
Single-phase equivalent circuit
for 5
th
Harmonic
HYBRID SERIES AND SHUNT
ACTIVE FILTER
At the Point of Common Coupling provides:

Harmonic current isolation between the sub transmission and
the distribution system (shunt A.F)
Voltage regulation (series A.F)
Voltage flicker/imbalance compensation (series A.F)

SELECTION OF AF S FOR SPECIFIC
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS

AF Configuration with higher number of * is more preferred
Compensation for
Specific Application
Active Filters
Active
Series
Active
Shunt
Hybrid of
Active Series
and Passive
Shunt
Hybrid of Active
Shunt and
Active Series
Current Harmonics ** *** *
Reactive Power *** ** *
Load Balancing *
Neutral Current ** *
Voltage Harmonics *** ** *
Voltage Regulation *** * ** *
Voltage Balancing *** ** *
Voltage Flicker ** *** *
Voltage Sag&Dips *** * ** *
Conclusion
The harmonic distortion principally comes from
Nonlinear-Type Loads.
The application of power electronics is causing
increased level of harmonics due to Switching!!
Harmonic distortion can cause serious
Failure/Damage problems.
Harmonics are important aspect of power operation
that requires Mitigation!!
Over-Sizing and Power Filtering methods are
commonly used to limit Overheating Effects of
Sustained Harmonics.
REFERENCES
1. Harmonics Treatment in Industrial Power System by Stefanos Manias

2. Modelling of Nonlinear Loads and Estimation of Harmonics in Industrial
Distribution System by C. Venkatesh, D. Srikanth Kumar, Student Members,
IEEE, D.V.S.S. Siva Sarma, Senior Member, IEEE and M. Sydulu, Member, IEEE

3. A Review of Harmonic Mitigation Techniques by Gonzalo Sandoval & John
Houdek

4. Understanding of Harmonics in Power Distribution Systems by Dr. Adel M.
Sharaf