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Thermal ( Steam ) Power plants

mainly consists of 4 circuits

Coal and ash Circuit

Coal produced in the mining site is transported to power plant site

Coal handling equipment for generation of steam

The combustion of coal produces ash which is collected and removed to ash storage yard through ash handling equipments

Air and gas circuit

FD or ID fans are used for supply the air to combustion chamber of the boiler through air- preheater

The air preheater is placed in the path of flue gases

to preheat the air

The flue gases produced by combustion of fuels in the boiler furnaces after passing around boiler tubes and super heater tubes

Pass through a dust collector or precipitator where most of dust is removed before venting it of to atmosphere through chimney

Feed water and steam circuit:

Prime mover develops power by utilizing steam

generated in the boiler Then condenser is used to condense the steam

coming out of prime mover A pump is used to feed the condensate to the boiler

The condensate leaving the condenser is heated in

feed heaters through extracted steam from lowest pressure extraction point of the turbine The feed water may also be supplied from external

source to compensate any loss of steam and water. In the boiler shell and tubes water circulation is

setup due to density difference of water between low and high temperature sections A super heater is used to super heat the wet steam from boiler drum and is then supplied to prime movers

Cooling water circuit

In the condenser, quantity of cooling water required to condense the steam is large and is taken either from lake, river or sea

The cooling water is taken from upper side of the river and then passed through the condenser

The hot water is then discharged to lower side of the river

The system is known as open system

Where water is not available in abundant water from condenser is cooled either in cooling pond or in cooling tower the system is known as closed system

Main Components of Thermal

Power Plants

1.

Boiler

  • 2. Super heater

  • 3. Economizer

  • 4. Air preheater

  • 5. Reheater

  • 6. Steam turbine

  • 7. Generator

  • 8. Condensers

  • 9. Cooling towers

10. Pumps

11.Coal mills

12.FD and ID Fans

13.ASH Precipitators 14.Water treatment plant

Essentials of steam power plant

Essentials of steam power plant

Various equipments

1. A furnace to burn the fuel.

2. Steam generator or boiler containing water. Heat generated in the furnace is utilized to

con- vert water in steam.

3. Main power unit such as an engine or turbine to use the heat energy of steam and perform work.

4. Piping system to convey steam and water.

In addition to the above equipment the plant requires various auxiliaries and accessories depending upon the availability of water, fuel and the service for which the plant is intended. The flow sheet of a thermal power plant consists of the following four main

circuits :

  • (i) Feed water and steam flow circuit (ii) Coal and ash circuit (iii) Air and gas circuit (iv) Cooling water circuit. A steam power plant using steam as working substance works basically on Rankine cycle. Steam is generated in a boiler, expanded in the prime mover and condensed in the condenser and fed into the boiler again.

(ii)

The different types of systems and components used in steam power plant are as follows : (i) High pressure boiler (ii) Prime mover (iii) Condensers and cooling towers (iv) Coal handling system (v) Ash and dust handling system (vi) Draught system (vii)

Feed water purification plant (viii) Pumping system (ix) Air preheater, economizer,

super heater, feed heaters.

Fuels used in thermal power plant

  • Combustion of fuel is accomplished by mixing with air at elevated temperatures

  • Oxygen in the air chemically unites with Carbon,

Hydrogen of fuels and produce heat

  • In thermal power plants normally steam is produced from water by using combustion heat of

fuels (Except in Gas turbines)

  • Various fuels were used in thermal power plants

Fossil fuels ( Coal, Oil & Gas) Industrial waste gases Synthetic fuels or SYNFUELS

Coal

Coal is the principal energy source for India because of its large deposits and availability

Coal originated from vegetable matter, which grew millions of years ago

Trees and plants falling into water decayed and later produced peat bogs

Huge geological upheavals buried these bogs under layers of silt

Subterranean heat, soil pressure and movement of earth's crust distilled off some of the bog's moisture and hardened it to form coal

Basically classification of coal is based on Physical and chemical composition

Peat Lignite and brown coal Bituminous coal Anthracite

Coal analysis

Two types of coal analysis

Proximate Analysis Gives: Behavior of coal when heated

FC + VM + M + A = 100% by mass

Ultimate Analysis

Gives: chemical elements along with ash and moisture

C + H + 0 + N + S + M + A = 100% by mass

Desirable properties of coal

High calorific value Small sulphur content ( les than 1%) Good burning characteristics for complete combustion High grind-ability index High weather-ability

Grading of coal done on the basis

Heating value Size Ash content Sulphur content

Peat

Low grade coal

First stage coal formation

Contains 90% moisture Small amount of volatile matter Not suitable for power plants Used in domestic purposes Requires 1-2 months for drying in sunlight

Peat (20% water, Dried) has CV of 16 MJ / kg

Lignite (Brown coal)

Intermediate stage of coal development High amount of moisture 30-40% Brown in color

High heating value and carbon compared to peat

Should be stored to avoid spontaneous combustion Used in pulverized form Can be air dried easily Suitable for local use instead of transporting

Bituminous coal

Containing 46-86% of fixed carbon and 20-40% of VM Ash content may vary 6-12 % High percentage of volatile matter CV of 32 MJ / Kg Sub-Bituminous is having less moisture, ash than lignite , used in briquette or pulverized form Semi-Bituminous coal high carbon and heating value, contain less moisture, ash, sulphur, &VM, Has tendency to break into pieces

Anthracite Coals

Contains more than 86% fixed carbon &VM around 8%

Ignites slowly has high CV of 36 MJ / Kg Low ash, zero CAKING power

Difficult to pulverize Anthracite coal

Coal handling

Coal handling

Coal handling system

Coal handling system In Case of Rail Delivery Most Commonly Used are : • Wagon Tippler

In Case of Rail Delivery Most Commonly Used are :

Wagon Tippler Hopper

Hydraulic Gates Opening

Hydraulic Gates Opening

Hydraulic Gates Opening Operation • The gates bellow the wagons are hydraulic controlled • By opening

Operation

Hydraulic Gates Opening Operation • The gates bellow the wagons are hydraulic controlled • By opening

The gates bellow the wagons are hydraulic controlled

By opening the gates the coal flows downwards due to gravitational force

Demerits

and is moved to the bellow pit

Due to the dust the Hydraulic will not work smoothly

Require a lot of maintenance

Wagon Tippler Hopper

Wagon Tippler Hopper
Wagon Tippler Hopper
Wagon Tippler Hopper

Preparation

Preparation Crushers and breakers used to crus the big size coal into small size coal Driers

Crushers and breakers used to crus the big size coal into small size coal

Driers used to dry the coal if it contains lot of moisture it is also further done in the pulverizes

Magnetic sprayers used to separate the iron parts that come along with

the coal from the mines these may damage the parts of pulverizes or

may have a bad effect on the boiler

Coal Crushers

Why?

Reduce size from 200mm to 20mm

Types of crushers

1.Ring Type Coal Crusher

2.Hammer Mill Coal Crusher

3.Brad Ford Breaker

Ring Type Coal Crusher

Operation

The coal is fed at the top left corner Is crushed in between the plane loose rings and the adjustable plates.

The loose rings with the jaws used to take the crushed coal down words

Adjustable plate and the screen determine the maximum size of the discharged coal

Hammer Mill Coal Crusher

Hammer Mill Coal Crusher

OPERATION

The coal is fed at the top

Is crushed by the action of rings that pivot off center on a rotor or by swinging hammers attached to it

Adjustable screen bars determine the maximum size of the discharged coal

Brad Ford Breaker

Brad Ford Breaker

Bradford breaker which is used for large capacity work

It consists of a large cylinder made up of perforated steel plates to which lifting shelves are attached on the inside

The cylinder rotating slowly at about 20 rpm receives coal at one end

The shelves lift the coal up and then the coal drops down by gravity

Transfer

Transfer Belt Conveyor

Belt Conveyor

Transfer Belt Conveyor

Belt conveyor

Belt conveyor

Belt conveyor

Belt conveyor
Belt conveyor
Belt conveyor

Screw conveyor

Screw conveyor
Screw conveyor

Bucket & Grab bucket elevator

Bucket & Grab bucket elevator

Skip Hoist and flight conveyor

Skip Hoist and flight conveyor

Stoker and Re-claimer

Stoker terms for storing the coal into the stock yard

Re-claimer means to take the coal back from the stock yard

It moves on the rail track along with adjustable length of belt conveyor

Stoker and Re-claimer Stoker terms for storing the coal into the stock yard Re-claimer means to
Stoker and Re-claimer Stoker terms for storing the coal into the stock yard Re-claimer means to

Combustion Equipments for Lumped coal burning

  • 1. Grate-fired furnaces

  • 2. Chamber-type or flame furnaces

Grate

Chamber type

Combustion Equipment For

Burning Coal

Fuel bed furnaces (coarse particles)

Pulverized coal furnaces (fine particles)

Cyclone furnaces (crushed particles)

Fluidized bed furnaces (crushed small

particles)

Fuel bed furnaces (coarse particles)

There are two ways of feeding coal on to the

grate

1. Overfeeding

2. Underfeeding

Overfeed stoker

Overfeed stoker Underfeed stoker

Underfeed stoker

Overfeed stoker Underfeed stoker

Overfeeding

Overfeeding

Overfeeding

Receives fresh coal from top surface has following distinct zones

Fresh or green coal Coal losing moisture (Drying zone) Coking layer (loosing of VM) Distillation zone Incandescent coke ( Fixed carbon is consumed) Combustion zone Ash layer progressively cooled

Operations

Primary air gets warmed up as it flows through the ash layer

As it passes through the incandescent coke layer(1200 C) Carbon converted to Carbon dioxide releasing heat continues till oxygen is consumed, if layer is thick CO2 is converted to CO reducing layer temperature

The stream while passing through distillation zone VM is added

In distillation zone moisture is added now stream contains N,CO2,CO,H2,VM&moisture

For combustion of this stream

A hot ignition point ( In the range of 1000-

  • 1300 o C

Done by providing a fire brick lined arch which stores up the heat and remains at high temperature

Sufficient fresh air

Secondary air or over-fire air

Turbulence

Providing secondary air at right angles to up-flowing gas stream emerging out of fuel bed

Results

Carbon is in CO, CO2 both are color less Carbon with hydrogen in VM which will be cracked to form free carbon at high temperature suspended in gas stream If Burner is not designed properly or operated properly leads to unburnt carbon particles this appears as black smoke on chimney top

Underfeeding

Underfeeding

Underfeeding

In underfeeding coal is fed from below

Primary air passing through holes diffuses through spaces in the raw green coal picking up moisture

In distillation zone to stream VM is added In incandescent zone VM breaks readily burns with secondary air present above it where it is fed from top

VM burning is somewhat cooler need longer time to ignite and burn

Mechanical Stokers

Overfeeding

  • 1. Traveling grate stoker

  • 2. Chain grate stoker

  • 3. Spreader stoker

  • 4. Vibrating grate stoker

Underfeed stoker

  • 1. Single retort

  • 2. Multiretort

Mechanical Stokers Overfeeding 1. Traveling grate stoker 2. Chain grate stoker 3. Spreader stoker 4. Vibrating

Traveling grate stoker

Traveling grate stoker
Traveling grate stoker

Traveling grate stoker

Grate surface is made up of Cast Iron bars joined together by links to form endless

belt Belt wound around two sprockets A coal gate regulates the depth of fuel bed Simultaneous adjustment of Fuel bed thickness, primary air flow controls the

burning rate so that at the end of its rear

ash only remains

Advantages & Disadvantages

Simple and Initial cost is low Reliable in service and maintenance is low

Gives high rate of heat release per volume of the furnace

  • Limited coal can be carried on grate

  • Clinker problems are common

  • Ignition arches are required

  • There is always some loss in the form of particles

Spreader stoker

Spreader stoker

Spreader stoker

Coal from hopper is fed by rotating feeder Feeder normally will have Blades fitted on the drum Fine particles burn in suspension

Speed of the feeder varies with the steam output of boiler

Grate is made up of CI bars, Links underneath the grate are connected to a lever

Fuels used may be Bituminous, lignite, wood waste, baggase

Coal size used in 6-36 cm

Advantages and Disadvantages

A wide variety of fuels can be used Clinker formation is reduced High temperature preheated air can be used Quick response to load variation Gives equal pressure drop and proper air distribution Operation cost is low

  • Difficult to operate variable sized coal particles

  • Fly ash and entrapped carbon particles

Underfeed stokers

Underfeed stokers

Multiple retort

Multiple retort

Pulverised coal

Pulverised coal
Pulverised coal

Why pulverisers?

Why pulverisers? • Size reduction (mm to micron) Other things: • Drying (primary air…approx 300 degree)

Size reduction (mm to micron)

Other things:

Drying (primary air…approx 300

degree) Feeding

Types of Pulverisers

Ball and tube mill (low speed < 75 rpm) Ball and tube race mill (medium speed 75- 225 rpm) Bowl mill (medium speed 75-225 rpm) Impact or hammer mill (> 225 rpm) ….depending upon the nature of coal

Pulverised coal firing

Pulverised coal firing is done by two system :

(i) Unit System or Direct System. Unit System.

(ii) Bin or Central System.

Pulverised coal firing Pulverised coal firing is done by two system : ( i ) Unit

In this system the raw coal from the coal bunker drops on to the feeder.

Hot air is passed through coal in

the feeder to dry the coal. The coal is then transferred

to

the pulverising mill where it is

pulverised.

Primary air is

supplied to

the

mill, by the fan. The mixture of pulverised coal and primary air then flows to

burner where secondary air is

added. The unit system is so called from the fact that each burner or a burner group and pulveriser constitute a unit.

Unit system

Advantages

  • (i) The system is simple and cheaper than the central system.

(ii) There is direct control of combustion from the pulverising mill.

(iii) Coal transportation system is simple

Bin or Central System.

Crushed coal from the raw coal bunker is fed by gravity to a dryer where hot air is passed

through the coal to dry it.

The dryer may use waste flue gases, preheated air or bleeder steam as drying agent.

The dry coal is then transferred to the pulverising mill.

The pulverised coal obtained is transferred to the pulverised coal bunker (bin)

The transporting air is separated from the coal in the cyclone separator.

The primary air is mixed with the coal at the feeder and the mixture is supplied to the

burner.

Advantages

l. The pulverising mill grinds the coal at a steady rate irrespective of boiler feed.

  • 2. There is always some coal in reserve. Thus any occasional breakdown in the coal supply will

not effect the coal feed to the burner.

  • 3. For a given boiler capacity pulverising mill of small capacity will be required as compared to

unit system.

Disadvantages

1. The initial cost of the system is high.

  • 2. Coal transportation system is quite complicated.

  • 3. The system requires more space.

Bin or central system

Bin or central system

Pulverised fuel firing system

Pulverised fuel firing system

Pulverized coal handling system

Pulverized coal handling system

Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill
Ball and tube mill
Ball and tube mill
Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill

Ball and tube mill

Mills can be designed and manufactured for very large

capacity. Also each mill can supply coal to two sets of

burner. Boiler can be designed with lesser number of

mills.

Higher power consumption per tons of coal and high starting torque makes drive motor large.

Suitable for base load stations only where load variation is

less.

Response to load change is very fast. During operation presence of relatively large quantity of pulverized coal in

grinding zone acts as a storage reservoir. In case of

sudden increase in fuel demand fuel flow can be

increased almost instantaneously. Start up and shutdown time is longer.

Product fineness is very good.

Bowl Mill

Bowl Mill

Bowl Mill

Bowl mill

Bowl mill

Bowl mill

Replacement of grinding elements takes lesser time.

Capacity and product fineness deteriorate with wearing out of grinding elements. Rate of erosion of bowl and rings are very high.

Frequent shutdown of mills are required for adjustment of loading springs which becomes loose for wearing out of

roller and bowl.

Ingress of non crushable material may damage mill internals.

Reject rate is very high. Elaborate mill reject system becomes essential for larger units. Disposal of mill reject

is another problem to be tackled by power station.

Impact/Hammer Mill

Impact/Hammer Mill

Impact/Hammer Mill

Impact/Hammer Mill

Impact/Hammer Mill

A simple, compact and low cost mill.

Mill can be designed for very high temperature. This facility makes this mill suitable for use with high moisture lignite fuel.

Wear of grinding elements reduces mill capacity.

Product fineness is low.

Ball and Race mill

Ball and Race mill

Ball and race mill

Capacity and product fineness does not deteriorate

appreciably with wearing out of grinding elements

because of self compensating mechanism. Hydro -pneumatic loading system maintains constant

loading pressure. But it is costly and needs maintenance. Response to load change is slow compared to tube mills.

Start up and shut down time is less.

Ingress of non crushable material may damage mill

internals. Chances of grinding zone fire are almost nil.

Ball and race mill

Ball and race mill
Ball and race mill

Ball and race mill

Ball and race mill

Pulverization

Advantages

Low excess air requirement

Less fan power

Ability to use highly preheated air reducing exhaust losses

Higher boiler efficiency

Ability to bum a wide variety of coals

Fast response to load changes

Ease of burning alternately with, or in combination with gas and oil

Ability to release large amounts of heat enabling it to generate about 2000 t/h of steam or more in one boiler

Ability to use fly ash for making bricks etc.

Less pressure losses and draught need.

Disadvantages

  • 1. Added investment in coal preparation unit

  • 2. Added power needed for pulverizing coal

  • 3. Large volume of furnaces needed to permit desired heat release and to withstand high gas temperature

Ash handling system

A large quantity of ash is, produced in steam power plants using coal. Ash produced in about 10 to 20% of the total coal burnt in the furnace. Handling of ash is a problem because ash coming out of the furnace is too hot, it is dusty and irritating to handle and is accompanied by some

poisonous gases.

It is desirable to quench the ash before handling due to following reasons:

1. Quenching reduces the temperature of ash.

  • 2. It reduces the corrosive action of ash.

  • 3. Ash forms clinkers by fusing in large lumps and by quenching clinkers will disintegrate.

  • 4. Quenching reduces the dust accompanying the ash.

Handling of ash includes its removal from the furnace, loading on the conveyors and delivered to the fill from where it can be disposed off.

ASH HANDLING EQUIPMENT

Mechanical means are required for the disposal of ash. The handling equipment should perform the following functions:

(1) Capital investment, operating and maintenance charges of the equipment should be low. (2) It should be able to handle large quantities of ash. (3) Clinkers, soot, dust etc. create troubles, the equipment should be able to handle them smoothly. (4) The equipment used should remove the ash from the furnace, load it to the conveying

system

to deliver the ash to a dumping site or storage and finally it should have means to dispose of

the stored ash. (5) The equipment should be corrosion and wear resistant.

ASH HANDLING FLOW DIAGRAM

Ash handling

Ash handling

Hydraulic Ash Handling System

Low Velocity System

Hydraulic Ash Handling System Low Velocity System

Hydraulic Ash Handling System

High Velocity

System

Pneumatic Ash Handling System

Pneumatic Ash Handling System

Dust collection system

The size of dust particles is designated in microns (1 μ = 0.001 mm). Dust particles are mainly

ash particles called fly ash intermixed with some quantity of carbon ash material called cinders.

Gas borne particles larger than 1μ in diameter are called dust and when such particles become

greater in size than 100µ they are called cinders. Smoke is produced due to the incomplete combustion of fuels, smoke particles are less than 10µ in size.

The disposal smoke to the atmosphere is not desirable due to the following reasons :

  • 1. A smoky atmosphere is less healthful than smoke free air.

2. Smoke is produced due to incomplete combustion of coal. This will create a big economic loss due to loss of heating value of coal.

3. In a smoky atmosphere lower standards of cleanliness are prevalent. Buildings, clothings, furniture etc. becomes dirty due to smoke. Smoke corrodes the metals and darkens the paints. To avoid smoke, the coal should be completely burnt in the furnace.

Types of dust collectors

The various types of dust collectors are as follows :

1. Mechanical dust collectors. 2. Electrical dust collectors. Mechanical dust collectors. Mechanical dust collectors are sub-divided into wet and dry types. In wet type collectors also known as scrubbers water sprays are used to wash dust from the air. The basic principles of mechanical dust collectors are shown in Fig. As shown in Fig. by

increasing the cross-sectional area of duct through which dust laden gases are passing, the velocity of gases is reduced and causes heavier dust particles to fall down. Changing the direction of flow of flue gases causes the heavier particles of settle out. Sometime baffles are provided as to separate the heavier particles. Mechanical dust collectors may be wet type or dry type. Wet

type dust collectors called scrub scrubbers make use of water sprays to wash the dust from flue

gases. Dry type dust collectors include gravitational, cyclone, and baffle dust collectors.

Types of dust collectors The various types of dust collectors are as follows : 1. Mechanical

Electrostatic Precipitators. It has two sets of electrodes, insulated from each other that maintain

an electrostatic field between them at high voltage. The flue gases are made to pass between these

two sets of electrodes. The electric field ionises the dust particle; that pass through it attracting them to the electrode of opposite charge. The other electrode is maintained at a negative potential of 30,000 to 60,000 volts. The dust particles are removed from the collecting electrode by rapping the electrode periodically. The electrostatic precipitator is costly but has low maintenance cost and is frequently employed with pulverised coal fired power stations for its effectiveness on very fine ash particles and is superior to that of any other type.

Electrostatic Precipitators. It has two sets of electrodes, insulated from each other that maintain an electrostatic

ESP

ESP
ESP

4.13.1 FLY ASH SCRUBBER

It is similar to a mechanical ash collector but has a flowing water film on its inner walls. Due to

this film, the collected ash is removed more rapidly from the apparatus to the bin. The degree of ash collection in scrubbers varies from 0.82 to 0.90. The dust laden gas enters through the inlet pipe.

Cinder Catcher. Cinder catcher is used to remove dust and cinders from the gas. In this catcher

the dust laden gas is made to strike a series of vertical baffles that change its direction and

reduce its velocity. The separated dust and cinders fall to the Hopper for removal. Cinder catchers are ordinarily used with stoker firing.

4.13.1 FLY ASH SCRUBBER It is similar to a mechanical ash collector but has a flowing